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Volume 04: British Tertiary Volcanic Province
 

Figure 1.1
Map of the British Isles, showing the distribution of Tertiary central complexes, dyke swarms and lavas (submarine occurrences not shown). Modified from Emeleus, in Sutherland (1982, figure 29.1)

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Table 1.1
British Tertiary Volcanic Province: summary of the geological successions, radiometric ages and magnetic polarities (after Mussett et al., 1988, figure 2)

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Figure 1.2
Diagram showing fields of the Preshal More Basalts (PMB), and the Skye Main Lava Series (SMLS) and Mull Plateau Group (MPG) when projected into normative nepheline-diopside-olivine-hypersthene-quartz (after Thompson, 1982, figure 2)

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Figure 2.1
Sgùrr nan Gillean and the Cuillin Mountains viewed from Sligachan, Isle of Skye. (Photo: David Noton Photography.)

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Table 2.1
Summary of the Palaeocene igneous geology of the Isle of Skye (based on Bell, J.D., 1976, table 1; Bell, B.R. and Harris, 1986)

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Figure 2.2
Map of the Isle of Skye, showing localities mentioned in the text

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Table 2.2
Correlation of the divisions of the Palaeocene lavas of the Isle of Skye (mainly after Williamson, 1919, table 1)

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Figure 2.3
Geological map of the Fiurnean to Rubha na h-Airde Glaise site (adapted from the British Geological Survey ‘One-Inch’ map, Northern Skye Sheet 80 and parts of 81, 90 and 91)

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Figure 2.4
Geological map of the Storr site (adapted from the British Geological Survey ‘One-Inch’ map, Northern Skye Sheet 80 and parts of 81, 90 and 91)

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Figure 2.6
A Geological map of the Talisker site (after Williamson, 1979). Area south-west of Fiskavaig; B Geological map of the Talisker site (after Williamson, 1979). Preshal Beg area; C Geological map of the Talisker site (after Williamson, 1979). Coast north and south of Talisker Bay; D Geological map of the Talisker site (after Williamson, 1979). Area between Preshal More and Stockval

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Figure 2.7
Late tholeiite lava forming Preshal More and infilling a former valley eroded in flows of the Skye Main Lava Series that form pale-coloured scarps below and to the right. Talisker site, Skye. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 2.8
Geological map of the Ros a’ Mheallain site (adapted from the British Geological Survey ‘One-Inch’ map, Northern Skye Sheet 80 and parts of 81, 90 and 91)

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Table 2.3
The succession at Allt Geodh a’ Ghamhna (after Williamson, 1919, table 2)

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Figure 2.9
Geological map of the An Clèireach site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One-Inch' map, Northern Skye Sheet 80 and parts of 81, 90 and 91)

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Figure 2.10
Geological map of the Rubha Hunish site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One-Inch' map, Northern Skye Sheet 80 and parts of 81, 90 and 91)

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Figure 2.11
Modal variation in the Rubha Hunish sill (after Anderson and Dunham, 1966, fig. 15)

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Figure 2.12
Geological map of the Marsco site (after Thompson, 1969, plate 18)

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Figure 2.13
Sketch of the west side of Marsco, showing the relationships of the Marscoite Suite rocks to the granite intrusions (reproduced from Sutherland, 1982, fig. 29.5; after Brown, 1969, figure 13)

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Figure 2.14
Geological map of the Mheall a' Mhaoil site (after Gass and Thorpe, 1976, fig. 6).

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Figure 2.15
Gabbros of the Cuillin centre form the Bla Bheinn ridge in the background, Tertiary lavas on prominent ridge in top left, and Mesozoic sediments reinforced by Tertiary sill(s) in left foreground. Loch Slapin in foreground. Coire Uaigneich site, Skye. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 2.16
Geological map of the Coire Uaigneich site (after Gass and Thorpe, 1976, figure 6)

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Figure 2.17
East face of Bla Bheinn formed by gabbros cut by later dykes (weathering to give notches) and cone-sheets (forming terraces on faces). Pale rocks at lower levels are the Coire Uaigneich Granite and Mesozoic sediments against the gabbros. Coire Uaigneich site, Skye. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 2.18
Geological map of the Beinn an Dubhaich site (after Gass and Thorpe, 1976, figure 6)

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Table 2.4
Minerals present in skarn zones (after Tilley, 1951, Table 1)

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Figure 2.19
Geological map of the Kilchrist site (after Gass and Thorpe, 1976, figure 6)

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Figure 2.20
Gabbros of the Cuillin centre form rough ground around Loch na Crèitheach in foreground, gabbro peak of Sgùrr nan Gillean on left, and smooth-weathering mass of Marsco (Western Red Hills granites) on right. Cuillin Hills and Marsco sites, Skye. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 2.21
Rough-weathering gabbro on Bla Bheinn (right) contrasting with smooth-weathering granites of the Strath na Crèitheach centre (left). Jurassic sediments occupy the right foreground. Cuillin Hills and Marsco sites, Skye. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Table 2.5
Succession in the Cuillin Hills site (after Bell and Harris, 1986, pp. 45-6)

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Figure 2.22
Geological map of the Cuillin Hills site (after Gass and Thorpe, 1976, figure 6)

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Figure 2.23
Gabbros of the Cuillin Hills site around Loch Scavaig, Skye. From Elgol. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 3.1
Layered allivalite (light) and peridotite (dark) high in the Eastern Layered Series ultrabasic rocks, Hallival. Askival-Hallival site, Rum. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 3.2
Map of the Small Isles showing localities mentioned in the text.

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Table 3.1
Summary of the Palaeocene igneous geology of Rum and the Small Isles (based on Emeleus and Forster, 1919, table 1, with later amendments)

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Figure 3.3
The Nose, east end of Sgùrr of Eigg. Massive Eocene pitchstone flow overlies eroded Palaeocene basalt lavas. The pitchstone fills a steep-sided valley, columnar jointing is developed in the pitchstone perpendicular to the valley side (slopes top right to bottom left), but gives way to fine-scale, near-vertical jointing at higher levels. The individual lava flows cut out against base of pitchstone (bottom right side). South-west Eigg site. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 3.4
Geological map of the Fionchra site, Rum (after Emeleus, 1980)

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Figure 3.5
Post-Central Complex basic lavas resting on an irregular surface of Torridonian sandstone. Fionchra site, Rum. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 3.6
Boulder conglomerate underlying flow-banded icelandite lava flow. The conglomerate contains granophyre, felsite and allivalite clasts derived from the weathering of the Rum Central Complex. South side of Fionchra. Fionchra site, Rum. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 3.7
Geological map of the Dibidil-Southern Mountains and Allt nam Bà-Beinn nan Stac sites, Rum. Inset (on opposite page) shows detail to the south of Allt nam Bà. Main figure after Emeleus (1980) with subsequent modifications (Greenwood, 1987). Inset after Smith ( 1985, fig. l )

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Figure 3.8
Geological map of the Askival-Hallival site, Rum (after Emeleus, 1980)

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Figure 3.9
Fine-scale layering in allivalite, west side of Hallival. Askival-Hallival site, Rum. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 3.10
Slumped folding in allivalite, near Askival summit, Rum. Askival-Hallival site, Rum. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 3.11
Geological map of the Harris Bay site, Rum (after Wadsworth, 1961, figure 2; Volker, 1983)

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Table 3.2
Harris Bay: subdivisions of the ultrabasic and basic layered rocks (modified from Wadsworth, 196 1, table 1, with amended Western Layered Series)

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Figure 3.12
Intrusion breccia at the contact of ultrabasic rocks with earlier granite. Eastern end of Harris Bay. Harris Bay site, Rum. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 3.13
Geological map of the Cnapan Breaca-Long Loch site, Rum (after Emeleus, 1980)

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Figure 3.14
Gravity stratified rhythmic layering in allivalite, west of Long Loch, Rum. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 3.15
Geological map of south-west Eigg (after Allwright, 1980, fig. 2.3.2)

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Figure 3.16
Ridge of the Sgùrr of Eigg, formed by an Eocene pitchstone flow filling a valley eroded from Palaeocene basalt lavas. South-west Eigg site. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 3.17
. Section through pitchstone and lava flows, near Bidein Boidheach, south-west Eigg (after Allwright, 1980, figure 6.4b)

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Figure 3.18
Geological map of the Camas Mòr site, Muck (after Allwright, 1980, fig. 2.2.2)

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Figure 3.19
Stack of Dùn Mòr, Sanday, formed of basalt lavas with interbedded coarse conglomerates. The conglomerates contain rare granite pebbles from the Rum Central Complex. Canna-Sanday vicinity. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 3.20
Sketch of Dùn Beag, Dùn Mòr and the cliffs of Sanday (after Harker, 1908, figure 12). Columnar basalt flows with interbedded conglomerate are seen on Dùn Mòr and the cliffs of Sanday. On Dùn Beag, lavas fill steep-sided valley eroded in conglomerate

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Figure 3.21
Cliff section at Compass Hill, Canna (after Harker, 1908, figure 8)

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Figure 3.22
Canna Harbour: Eilean a' Bhaird from the east (after Allwright, 1980, figure 2.4.13)

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Figure 3.23
Canna Harbour: Eilean a' Bhaird from the north (after Allwright, 1980, figure 2.4.14)

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Table 4.1
The geological succession in the Ardnamurchan Central Complex (based on Richey and Thomas, 1930, Chapter 7)

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Figure 4.1
Map of the Ardnamurchan Peninsula showing localities mentioned in the text

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Figure 4.2
Geological map of the Ben Hiant site (after Gribble, 1976)

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Figure 4.3
Ben Hiant from the east, showing terracing developed along the location of minor intrusions. The headland to the left is Maclean's Nose, formed by volcanic breccias. Ben Hiant site. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 4.4
Geological map of the Glas Eilean-Mingary Pier site (after Gribble et al., 1976)

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Figure 4.5
Geological map of the Glas Bheinn-Glebe Hill site (after Gribble et al., 1976)

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Figure 4.6
Geological map of the Beinn na Seilg-Beinn nan Ord site (after Gribble et al., 1976)

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Figure 4.7
Geological map of the Ardnamurchan Point-Sanna site (after Gribble et al., 1976)

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Figure 4.8
Granitic net-veining and an intrusion breccia of gabbro and dolerite fragments. Centre 2 ring-dykes, near the lighthouse, western tip of Ardnamurchan. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 4.9
Geological map of Centre 3, Ardnamurchan (after Gribble et al., 1976)

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Figure 4.10
The natural amphitheatre of Centre 3, Ardnamurchan. The imposing arcuate ridges in the distance are formed by the Great Eucrite. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 5.1
The flat-lying succession of basalt lavas of the Wilderness area, western Mull, give rise to the trap-type topography. Bearraich site, Mull. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Table 5.1
The Mull Central Complex: sequence of events (after Skelhorn, 1969, pp. 2-6)

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Figure 5.2
Map of the Isle of Mull, showing localities mentioned in the text

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Table 5.2
Classification and correlation of the Mull lavas

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Figure 5.3
Sketch of the magmatic plumbing beneath south-west Mull during extrusion of the Palaeocene basaltic lavas (after Morrison et al., 1985, fig. 4). See text for explanation

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Figure 5.4
Geological map of the Bearraich site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 43, Iona)

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Figure 5.5
‘MacCulloch’s Tree’ on Rubha na h-Uamha (NM 402 278), an upright coniferous trunk 12 m high engulfed by lava of StafTa Magma Type. Bearraich site, Mull. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 5.6
Geological map of the Ardtun site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 43, Iona)

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Figure 5.7
The best section through the Ardtun Leaf Beds at Slochd, an Uruisge (NM 377 248). Ardtun site, Mull. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 5.8
Geological map of the Loch Sguabain site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 44, Mull)

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Figure 5.9
Basaltic pillow lavas, formed in a caldera lake. Loch Sguabain site, Mull. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 5.10
Geological map of the Laggan Bay site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 43, Iona)

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Figure 5.11
A view of 'S Airde Beinn from the south. 'S Airde Beinn site, Mull. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 5.12
Geological map of the Carsaig Bay site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 44, Mull)

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Figure 5.13
The Rubh' a 'Chromain composite sill exposed at the western edge of the Carsaig Bay site, Mull. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 5.14
Geological map of the Loch Spelve-Auchnacraig site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 44, Mull)

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Figure 5.15
Cruach Choireadail, viewed from the Coladoir River, exposing gabbro/granophyre of the Glen More ring-dyke. Cruach Choireadail site, Mull. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 5.16
Geological map of the Cruach Choireadail site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 44, Mull)

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Figure 5.17
Geological map of the Allt Molach-Beinn Chàisgidle site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 44, Mull)

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Figure 5.18
Geological map of the Loch Bà-Ben More site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 'One Inch' map, Sheet 44, Mull)

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Figure 5.19
Vent agglomerate containing fragments of Moine gneiss (NM 558 324). Loch Bà-Ben More site, Mull. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 5.20
Columnar jointing in the Loch Bà Felsite ring-dyke (NM 552 371). Loch Bà-Ben More site, Mull. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 6.1
The Northern Granite Mountains of north Arran. Cir Mhor, Arran. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 6.2
Map of the Isle of Arran, showing localities mentioned in the text

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Table 6.1
Tertiary igneous succession in the Isle of Arran (after Hodgson et al., 1990, figure 8)

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Figure 6.3
Geological map of the Ard Bheinn site (adapted from King, 1955, plate XVI)

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Figure 6.4
Geological map of the Glen Catacol site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 1:50 000 Special District Sheet, Arran)

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Figure 6.5
Geological map of the Drumadoon-Tormore site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 1:50 000 Special District Sheet, Arran, with additional information from McKerrow and Atkins, 1985, figure 1 la)

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Figure 6.6
Columnar jointing in the composite sill, The Doon. Drumadoon-Tormore site, Arran. (Photo: A.P. McKirdy.)

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Figure 6.7
Geological map of the Dippin Head site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 1:50 000 Special District Sheet, Arran)

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Table 6.2
Petrological variation within the Dippin Sill (based on Gibb and Henderson, 1918b, figure 4)

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Figure 6.8
Dyke swarm on the foreshore at Kildonan. The dykes weather out to form reefs; the softer Triassic sandstone in between has been eroded back. South Coast of Arran site, Arran. (Photo: C.H. Emeleus.)

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Figure 6.9
Dolerite dykes forming part of the Arran dyke swarm on the shore below Kildonan Castle (NS 037 209). South coast of Arran site, Arran. (Photo: C.J. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 6.10
Geological map of the Corrygills Shore site (adapted from the British Geological Survey 1:50,000 Special District Sheet, Arran)

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Figure 6.11
The Corrygills pitchstone sill in the cliff below the Clauchlands Sill (crinanite) at NS 050 337. Corrygills Shore site, Arran. (Photo: CJ. MacFadyen.)

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Figure 7.1
The north-west corner of Garbh Eilean, showing the main sill (left) and the lower sill (with natural arch), Shiant Isles. (Photo: F.G.F. Gibb.)

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Figure 7.2
Geological map of the Shiant Isles (after Walker, 1930, plate 36, with additions from Gibb and Henderson, 1984, figure 1)

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Figure 7.3
Simplified vertical sections through the main Garbh Eilean-Eilean an Tighe sill, Shiant Isles (after Gibb and Henderson, 1984, figure 2)

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Figure 7.4
'Pillows' of basic rock in a granitic matrix. Probably due to the simultaneous intrusion of granitic and basaltic liquids; an example of 'mixed magmas'. South end of Hirta, near Dun, St Kilda. (Photo: H. Armstrong.)

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Figure 7.5
Geological map of the St Kilda archipelago (adapted from the British Geological Survey 1:25 000 Special Sheet, St Kilda)

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Figure 7.6
Sketch maps showing outcrops of the Cleveland Dyke near Great Ayton, North Yorkshire: (lower) Langbaurgh Ridge. Localities A-F refer to points where the north margin of the dyke has been preserved. (upper) Upper part of Cliff Rigg Quarry. For explanation of localities 1-4 see text

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