Home
Volume 09: Palaeozoic Palaeobotany of Great Britain
 

Figure 1.1
The progressive appearance of adaptations for life on land in plants.

GCRv09c01f001
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (159kb)
HiResJPEG (928kb)
TIFF (2,820kb)

Figure 1.2
The ranges of the main plant classes through the Palaeozoic.

GCRv09c01f002
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (162kb)
HiResJPEG (1,907kb)
TIFF (5,452kb)

Figure 1.3
The potential processes involved in a plant fragment passing into the fossil record. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 4.1).

GCRv09c01f003
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (132kb)
HiResJPEG (742kb)
TIFF (2,206kb)

Figure 1.4
Summary of modes and nomenclature of plant fossil preservation. Each of the major modes of preservation are represented by a rectangle. The left-hand side of each rectangle shows a transverse-section through a hypothetical stem, and right-hand side a close-up section showing cells. Based on Bateman in Cleal (1991, figure 2.2).

GCRv09c01f004
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (146kb)
HiResJPEG (969kb)
TIFF (2,685kb)

Figure 1.5
The distribution of the GCR Palaeozoic palaeobotany sites in Britain. See Table 1 for site names.

GCRv09c01f005
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (155kb)
HiResJPEG (813kb)
TIFF (2,051kb)

Figure 3.1
The distribution of families of vascular plants in the Silurian. Based on data from Cleal (1993).

GCRv09c03f001
Thumbnail (12kb)
LoResJPEG (48kb)
HiResJPEG (281kb)
TIFF (854kb)

Figure 3.2
The palaeogeography of the Silurian, showing the location of the major fossil floras of this age. 1 – Virginia; 2 – Maine; 3 – New York State; 4 – Tipperary; 5 – Wales; 6 – Bohemia; 7 – Podolia; 8 – Kazakhstan; 9 – Xinjiang; 10 – Victoria. Based on Scotese and McKerrow (1990).

GCRv09c03f002
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (153kb)
HiResJPEG (963kb)
TIFF (2,835kb)

Figure 3.3
Reconstructions of two typical Silurian rhyniophytoid plants. (A) Cooksonia. (B) Steganotheca. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 3.1; after D. Edwards).

GCRv09c03f003
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (57kb)
HiResJPEG (301kb)
TIFF (905kb)

Figure 3.4
Outcrop of Wenlock to Přídolí strata in Wales and the Welsh Borderland, showing the locations of the Silurian GCR palaeobotany sites.

GCRv09c03f004
Thumbnail (18kb)
LoResJPEG (102kb)
HiResJPEG (762kb)
TIFF (2,059kb)

Figure 3.5
Chronostratigraphical classification of the Silurian, and the positions of the GCR and other major palaeobotanical sites in this system.

GCRv09c03f005
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (111kb)
HiResJPEG (759kb)
TIFF (2,207kb)

Figure 3.6
Pen-y-Glog Slate Quarry. Cleaved Pen-y-Glog Slates in the lower part of the quarry face, that have yielded Berwynia. These are overlain by turbidites of the Pen-y-Glog Grits, that contain Prototaxites. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c03f006
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (383kb)
HiResJPEG (6,520kb)
TIFF (18,655kb)

Figure 3.7
Distribution of grit and shale facies in the Wenlock of North Wales, showing the position of Pen-y-Glog Slate Quarry. Based on Smith and George (1961, figure 20).

GCRv09c03f007
Thumbnail (18kb)
LoResJPEG (229kb)
HiResJPEG (2,714kb)
TIFF (8,879kb)

Figure 3.8
Berwynia carruthersii Hicks. Enigmatic, possibly algal plant; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.5887. Pen-y-Glog Slate Formation (Wenlock), Pen-y-Glog Slate Quarry. x 0.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c03f008
Thumbnail (18kb)
LoResJPEG (244kb)
HiResJPEG (3,189kb)
TIFF (8,517kb)

Figure 3.9
Geological map of the area around Llangammarch Wells. The quarry yielding the plant fossils lies just to the east of the village as marked on the map. Based on George (1970, figure 14).

GCRv09c03f009
Thumbnail (26kb)
LoResJPEG (330kb)
HiResJPEG (2,916kb)
TIFF (7,573kb)

Figure 3.10
Powysia bassettii D. Edwards. Enigmatic branched alga; National Museum of Wales, specimen 72.39G1a (holotype). Graptolitic shales (lower Neodiversograptus nilssoni Zone – Gorstian), Llangammarch Wells Quarry. x 1.6. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c03f010
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (202kb)
HiResJPEG (2,753kb)
TIFF (7,134kb)

Figure 3.11
Inopinatella lawsonii Elliott. Non-calcified, possibly dasyclad alga; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.31287. Aymestry Limestone Formation (upper Gorstian), Rockhall Quarry. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c03f011
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (197kb)
HiResJPEG (2,980kb)
TIFF (7,367kb)

Figure 3.12
Cooksonia pertoni Lang. Earliest examples of rhyniophytoid land plants known from Great Britain; National Museum of Wales, specimen 79.17G3. Wilsonia Shales Formation (lower Ludlow), Cwm Craig Ddu Quarry. x 5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c03f012
Thumbnail (28kb)
LoResJPEG (137kb)
HiResJPEG (1,901kb)
TIFF (5,043kb)

Figure 3.13
Capel Horeb Quarry. The bedding plane on the left of the picture is of upper Ludlow beds of the Upper Roman Camp Formation. These are overlain by upper Ludlow or lower Přídolí beds of the Long Quarry Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c03f013
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (431kb)
HiResJPEG (6,256kb)
TIFF (17,233kb)

Figure 3.14
Close-up of part of the face of Capel Horeb Quarry, showing the relationship between the two plant-bearing intervals. (Photo: B.A. Thomas.)

GCRv09c03f014
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (144kb)
HiResJPEG (1,989kb)
TIFF (5,561kb)

Figure 3.15
Steganotheca striata D. Edwards. One of the earliest known land plants; National Museum of Wales, specimen 69.64G32a (holotype). Upper Roman Camp Formation (upper Ludlow), Capel Horeb Quarry. x 1.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c03f015
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (126kb)
HiResJPEG (1,807kb)
TIFF (4,561kb)

Figure 3.16
Cooksonia pertoni Lang. A fertile specimen from the type locality for this important early land plant; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.58009. Rushall Formation (P řídolí), Perton Lane. x 3. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c03f016
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (174kb)
HiResJPEG (2,146kb)
TIFF (5,360kb)

Figure 3.17
Freshwater East. View across bay towards the Late Silurian plant-bearing exposures in the Freshwater East Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c03f017
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (251kb)
HiResJPEG (3,014kb)
TIFF (8,280kb)

Figure 3.18
The outcrop of the Milford Haven Group (Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian) in Pembrokeshire, showing position of Freshwater East and other localities that yield plant fossils. Based on Williams et al. (1982, figure 2).

GCRv09c03f018
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (110kb)
HiResJPEG (980kb)
TIFF (2,854kb)

Figure 3.19
Lithostratigraphical divisions of the Přídolí and Lower Devonian of South Wales and the Welsh Borderland. From left to right, the four columns represent the sequences in (1) the Welsh Borderland, (2) central South Wales, (3) Dyfed north of the Ritec Fault, and (4) Dyfed south of the Ritec Fault. Based on Friend and Williams (1978, figure 31).

GCRv09c03f019
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (109kb)
HiResJPEG (595kb)
TIFF (1,683kb)

Figure 3.20
Tortilicaulis transwalliensis D. Edwards. A fertile specimen of an early rhyniophytoid land plant; National Museum of Wales, specimen 77.6G2. Freshwater East Formation (lower Milford Haven Group – Přídolí), Freshwater East. x 4. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c03f020
Thumbnail (33kb)
LoResJPEG (141kb)
HiResJPEG (1,546kb)
TIFF (3,981kb)

Figure 3.21
Psilophytites sp. The oldest known examples of a plant axis with spines; National Museum of Wales, specimen 77.6G56a. Freshwater East Formation (lower Milford Haven Group – Přídolí), Freshwater East. x 10. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c03f021
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (161kb)
HiResJPEG (2,375kb)
TIFF (6,024kb)

Figure 4.1
The distribution of families of vascular plants in the Devonian. Based on data from Cleal (1993).

GCRv09c04f001
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (200kb)
HiResJPEG (1,954kb)
TIFF (5,413kb)

Figure 4.2
The palaeogeography of the Devonian, showing the location of the major fossil floras of this age. 1 – North Argentina; 2 – West Virginia; 3 – Pennsylvania; 4 – Maine; 5 – Quebec; 6 – New York State; 7 – New Brunswick; 8 – Rhineland; 9 – Bohemia; 10 – Ireland; 11 – Wales and the Welsh Borderland; 12 – Scotland; 13 – Belgium; 14 – Norway; 15 – Bear Island; 16 – Spitsbergen; 17 – Poland; 18 – Moldavia; 19 – Ukraine; 20 – Kuzbass; 21 – Kazakhstan; 22 – Yunnan; 23 – Victoria; 24 – New South Wales; 25 – Queensland. Based on Scotese and McKerrow (1990).

GCRv09c04f002
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (145kb)
HiResJPEG (868kb)
TIFF (2,615kb)

Figure 4.3
Reconstruction of Zosterophyllum. From Gensel and Andrews (1984).

GCRv09c04f003
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (55kb)
HiResJPEG (297kb)
TIFF (753kb)

Figure 4.4
Reconstructions of Early Devonian lycopsids. (A) Asteroxylon. (B) Drepanophycus. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 3.6; after Kräusel and Weyland, and Kidston and Lang).

GCRv09c04f004
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (51kb)
HiResJPEG (253kb)
TIFF (725kb)

Figure 4.5
Reconstruction of the Devonian trimerophyte Psilophyton. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 3.7).

GCRv09c04f005
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (47kb)
HiResJPEG (252kb)
TIFF (748kb)

Figure 4.6
Reconstruction of the Devonian fern-like plant Pseudosporochnus. Based on Leclercq and Banks (1962).

GCRv09c04f006
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (90kb)
HiResJPEG (544kb)
TIFF (1,445kb)

Figure 4.7
Partial reconstruction of the Devonian progymnosperm Protopteridium. Based on Meyen (1987, figure 38M)

GCRv09c04f007
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (70kb)
HiResJPEG (313kb)
TIFF (903kb)

Figure 4.8
Distribution of Lower Devonian plant fossil-bearing beds in South Wales and the Welsh Borderland showing position of GCR sites. Based on Kenrick and Edwards (1988b, figure 25).

GCRv09c04f008
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (96kb)
HiResJPEG (698kb)
TIFF (2,048kb)

Figure 4.9
Chronostratigraphical classification of the Devonian, and the positions of the GCR and other major palaeobotanical sites in this system.

GCRv09c04f009
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (171kb)
HiResJPEG (1,166kb)
TIFF (3,550kb)

Figure 4.10
Turin Hill, Aberlemno Quarry. Strike section along flaggy deposits of the Gedinnian Dundee Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c04f010
Thumbnail (26kb)
LoResJPEG (266kb)
HiResJPEG (3,927kb)
TIFF (11,159kb)

Figure 4.11
Parka decipiens Fleming. Enigmatic, possible early land plant, consisting of a cutinized thallus covered with discoid sporangia; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.24951. Dundee Formation (Gedinnian), Carmylie, Tayside. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f011
Thumbnail (28kb)
LoResJPEG (146kb)
HiResJPEG (1,665kb)
TIFF (4,472kb)

Figure 4.12
Zosterophyllum myretonianum Penhallow. Tangled mass of axes at the base of the plant that gave rise to the vertical shoots; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.58041. Dundee Formation (Gedinnian), Balgavies Quarry, near Forfar, Tayside. x 0.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f012
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (146kb)
HiResJPEG (1,776kb)
TIFF (4,736kb)

Figure 4.13
Zosterophyllum myretonianum Penhallow. A fertile spike with sporangia arranged around the axis; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.58047. Dundee Formation (Gedinnian), Clocksbriggs Quarry, Turin Hill. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f013
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (195kb)
HiResJPEG (2,733kb)
TIFF (7,099kb)

Figure 4.14
Zosterophyllum llanoveranum Croft and Lang. A group of fertile spikes probably originating from a single plant; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.26516a. Brownstone Group (Siegenian), Llanover Quarry. x 1.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f014
Thumbnail (30kb)
LoResJPEG (391kb)
HiResJPEG (5,489kb)
TIFF (14,534kb)

Figure 4.15
Dawsonites arcuatus Halle. Terminal part of fertile truss; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.26492. Brownstone Group (Siegenian), Llanover Quarry. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f015
Thumbnail (31kb)
LoResJPEG (133kb)
HiResJPEG (1,462kb)
TIFF (3,800kb)

Figure 4.16
Craig-y-Fro Quarry. Sedimentological log through the exposed part of the Senni Beds, and a view of the quarry face showing the main beds. Also shown are three of the main plant-bearing horizons. Partly based on Friend and Williams (1978, figure 40). (Photo: D. Edwards.)

GCRv09c04f016
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (165kb)
HiResJPEG (2,365kb)
TIFF (6,311kb)

Figure 4.17
Uskiella spargens Shute and D. Edwards. Branched axes bearing terminal sporangia; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.26461a. Senni Beds (Siegenian), Craig-y-Fro Quarry. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f017
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (102kb)
HiResJPEG (1,311kb)
TIFF (3,284kb)

Figure 4.18
Gosslingia breconensis Heard. Branched axes with some lateral sporangia; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.26575. Senni Beds (Siegenian), Craig-y-Fro Quarry. x 0.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f018
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (312kb)
HiResJPEG (4,843kb)
TIFF (12,917kb)

Figure 4.19
Drepanophycus spinaeformis Göppert. Leafy shoot; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.58185. Strathmore Group (Emsian), Ballanucater Farm. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f019
Thumbnail (27kb)
LoResJPEG (204kb)
HiResJPEG (2,310kb)
TIFF (5,673kb)

Figure 4.20
Auchensail Quarry. Emsian sandstones and shales of the Strathmore Group. Note the igneous dyke just to the left of centre of the quarry face as shown. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c04f020
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (272kb)
HiResJPEG (3,942kb)
TIFF (10,584kb)

Figure 4.21
Sedimentology of the Strathmore Group (Emsian) at Auchensail Quarry. Based on Scott et al. (1976).

GCRv09c04f021
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (160kb)
HiResJPEG (838kb)
TIFF (2,352kb)

Figure 4.22
Rhynie. The field just outside of the village, under which lies the Siegenian fossiliferous chert. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c04f022
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (166kb)
HiResJPEG (3,084kb)
TIFF (9,308kb)

Figure 4.23
Geology of the Rhynie area. (A) Map showing the outline of the Rhynie outlier. (B) Map showing detail of that part of the outlier containing the fossiliferous chert (marked by a rectangle on A). Based on Trewin and Rice (1992, figure 1), who provide details of the boreholes marked on (B).

GCRv09c04f023
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (324kb)
HiResJPEG (2,031kb)
TIFF (5,904kb)
GCRv09c04f023cont
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (406kb)
HiResJPEG (1,715kb)
TIFF (4,667kb)

Figure 4.24
Composite log through Rhynie Chert showing distribution of plant-bearing horizons. Based on Trewin (1989, p. 11).

GCRv09c04f024
Thumbnail (14kb)
LoResJPEG (119kb)
HiResJPEG (771kb)
TIFF (2,349kb)

Figure 4.25
Rhynia gwynnevaughanii Kidston and Lang. Transverse section through stem showing central vascular strand; Natural History Museum, London, specimen SC.3132. Rhynie Chert (Siegenian), Rhynie. x 25. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f025
Thumbnail (27kb)
LoResJPEG (81kb)
HiResJPEG (726kb)
TIFF (1,873kb)

Figure 4.26
Rhynia gwynnevaughanii Kidston and Lang. Cut-away reconstruction of stem showing cylindrical protostele of xylem (x), phloem (p), and stomata on the stem surface (s). From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 3.2D; after Chaloner and Macdonald).

GCRv09c04f026
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (36kb)
HiResJPEG (141kb)
TIFF (441kb)

Figure 4.27
(A) Rhynia gwynnevaughanii Kidston and Lang; reconstruction of aerial parts of plant including terminal sporangia. (B-C) Horneophyton lignieri (Kidston and Lang) Barghoorn and Darrah; (B) cut-away reconstruction of dichotomizing sporangia showing the central columella; (C) reconstruction of whole plant. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 3.2C, E, and F; after Eggert and D.S. Edwards).

GCRv09c04f027
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (65kb)
HiResJPEG (358kb)
TIFF (1,132kb)

Figure 4.28
Horneophyton lignieri (Kidston and Lang) Barghoorn and Darrah. Longitudinal sections through corm-like rhizome; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.15648. Rhynie Chert (Siegenian), Rhynie. (left) x 8, (right) x 5. (Photos: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f028
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (125kb)
HiResJPEG (1,576kb)
TIFF (4,303kb)

Figure 4.29
Asteroxylon mackei Kidston and Lang. Transverse section through dichotomizing stem, showing two vascular traces with the characteristic stellar cross-section; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.15643. Rhynie Chert (Siegenian), Rhynie. x 6.66. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f029
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (78kb)
HiResJPEG (961kb)
TIFF (2,445kb)

Figure 4.30
Aglaophyton major (Kidston and Lang) D.S. Edwards. (A) cut-away reconstruction of sporangium. (B) reconstruction of whole plant. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 3.2A-B; after D.S. Edwards).

GCRv09c04f030
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (49kb)
HiResJPEG (242kb)
TIFF (779kb)

Figure 4.31
Putative Devonian gametophytes. (A) Lyonophyton rhyniensis Remy and Remy, based on Rhynie fossils. (B) Sciadophyton steinmannii Kräusel and Weyland, based on Lower Devonian fossils from Germany. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 3.9; after W. Remy and R. Remy).

GCRv09c04f031
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (57kb)
HiResJPEG (311kb)
TIFF (972kb)

Figure 4.32
Reconstruction of the Early Devonian vegetation at Rhynie. Based on Trewin (1989, p. 12).

GCRv09c04f032
Thumbnail (28kb)
LoResJPEG (298kb)
HiResJPEG (1,709kb)
TIFF (4,390kb)

Figure 4.33
Bay of Skaill. Beds associated with the Sandwick Fish Bed, at the Eifelian–Givetian boundary. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c04f033
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (189kb)
HiResJPEG (2,855kb)
TIFF (7,677kb)

Figure 4.34
Protopteridium thomsonii (Dawson) Kräusel and Weyland. Fertile spike of the oldest known progymnosperm; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.9425. Sandwick Fish Bed (Eifelian–Givetian boundary), Bay of Skaill. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f034
Thumbnail (30kb)
LoResJPEG (467kb)
HiResJPEG (6,333kb)
TIFF (16,249kb)

Figure 4.35
Sloagar. Steeply-dipping Givetian lacustrine beds of the North Gavel Formation. Plant fossils occur in the shales in the middle of the picture. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c04f035
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (223kb)
HiResJPEG (2,593kb)
TIFF (7,810kb)

Figure 4.36
Geological map of Fair Isle, showing position of Givetian palaeobotanical site at Sloagar. Based on Marshall and Allen (1982, text-figure 1).

GCRv09c04f036
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (221kb)
HiResJPEG (1,003kb)
TIFF (2,869kb)

Figure 4.37
Stratigraphical section of the Middle Devonian of Fair Isle, showing the main plant fossil-bearing horizons. Based on Marshall and Allen (1982, text-figure 2).

GCRv09c04f037
Thumbnail (13kb)
LoResJPEG (106kb)
HiResJPEG (580kb)
TIFF (1,733kb)

Figure 4.38
Devonian stratigraphy of North Devon, showing position of the Baggy Beds.

GCRv09c04f038
Thumbnail (14kb)
LoResJPEG (64kb)
HiResJPEG (324kb)
TIFF (887kb)

Figure 4.39
Details of the stratigraphy of the Baggy and Pilton formations in North Devon. Based on Scrutton (1978, figure 6).

GCRv09c04f039
Thumbnail (13kb)
LoResJPEG (69kb)
HiResJPEG (428kb)
TIFF (1,685kb)

Figure 4.40
Sphenopteridium rigidum (Ludwig) Potonié. Fragments of early pteridosperm fronds; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.3562. Baggy Formation (upper Famennian), Plaistow Quarry. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c04f040
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (267kb)
HiResJPEG (3,938kb)
TIFF (10,305kb)

Figure 5.1
The distribution of families of vascular plants in the Early Carboniferous. Based on data from Cleal (1993).

GCRv09c05f001
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (172kb)
HiResJPEG (1,074kb)
TIFF (3,145kb)

Figure 5.2
The palaeogeography of the Early Carboniferous, showing the distribution of the major floristic zones (phytochoria). Based on Scotese and McKerrow (1990) and Cleal and Thomas in Cleal (1991).

GCRv09c05f002
Thumbnail (14kb)
LoResJPEG (97kb)
HiResJPEG (533kb)
TIFF (1,314kb)

Figure 5.3
Chronostratigraphical and biostratigraphical classification of the Lower Carboniferous, and the positions of the GCR and other major palaeobotanical sites in this subsystem (adpressions).

GCRv09c05f003
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (135kb)
HiResJPEG (773kb)
TIFF (2,336kb)

Figure 5.4
Chronostratigraphical classification of the Lower Carboniferous, and the positions of the GCR and other major palaeobotanical sites in this subsystem (petrifactions).

GCRv09c05f004
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (91kb)
HiResJPEG (520kb)
TIFF (1,485kb)

Figure 5.5
Reconstruction of an Early Carboniferous herbaceous lycopsid, Oxroadia gracilis. Based on Bateman et al. (1992, figure 2D).

GCRv09c05f005
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (40kb)
HiResJPEG (211kb)
TIFF (547kb)

Figure 5.6
Reconstruction of the Early Carboniferous lagenostomalean pteridosperm tree Stamnostoma, with insets showing details of foliage (A), pollen organs (B) and seeds (C). Based on Retallack and Dilcher (1988).

GCRv09c05f006
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (158kb)
HiResJPEG (1,132kb)
TIFF (2,938kb)

Figure 5.7
Reconstruction of the Early Carboniferous lagenostomalean pteridosperm Diplopteridium. Based on Rowe (1988b, figure 35).

GCRv09c05f007
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (75kb)
HiResJPEG (475kb)
TIFF (1,207kb)

Figure 5.8
Reconstruction of the Early Carboniferous calamopityalean pteridosperm Lyrasperma, with insets showing details of foliage (A) and seeds (B). Based on Retallack and Dilcher (1988).

GCRv09c05f008
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (146kb)
HiResJPEG (948kb)
TIFF (2,606kb)

Figure 5.9
Distribution of Lower Carboniferous rocks in Scotland, showing location of GCR palaeobotany sites. 1 – Lennel Braes; 2 – Whiteadder; 3 – Weak Law; 4 – Loch Humphrey Burn; 5 – Glenarbuck; 6 – Laggan; 7 – Pettycur; 8 – Kingswood End; 9 – Oxroad Bay; 10 – Victoria Park; 11 – Glencartholm; 12 – Wardie Shore; 13 – Kingwater.

GCRv09c05f009
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (126kb)
HiResJPEG (1,235kb)
TIFF (3,647kb)

Figure 5.10
Edrom, Whiteadder River. Shales and cemented mudstones of the upper Tournaisian Cementstone Group. The main plant bed is in the bed of the river. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c05f010
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (229kb)
HiResJPEG (3,520kb)
TIFF (9,921kb)

Figure 5.11
Location map for the Whiteadder GCR palaeobotany site. Based on Scott et al. (1984, figure 14).

GCRv09c05f011
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (45kb)
HiResJPEG (245kb)
TIFF (800kb)

Figure 5.12
Sections through Early Carboniferous seeds from the Whiteadder. (A) Genomosperma kidstonii x 5. (B) G. latens x 5. (C) Stamnostoma huttonense x 20. (D) Hydrasperma tenuis x 20. Based on Long (1959b, 1960a, 1961b).

GCRv09c05f012
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (99kb)
HiResJPEG (637kb)
TIFF (2,200kb)

Figure 5.13
Sections through Early Carboniferous seeds from the Whiteadder (Eospermaceae). (A) Eosperma edronense. (B) Deltasperma fouldenense. (C) Eccroustosperma langtonense. (D) Camptosperma berniciense. All x 20. Based on Long (1961a, b, 1966).

GCRv09c05f013
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (191kb)
HiResJPEG (1,202kb)
TIFF (4,051kb)

Figure 5.14
Sections through Early Carboniferous seeds from the Whiteadder (Calamopityales). (A) Lyrasperma scotica x 5. (B) Eurystoma trigona x 15. (C) E. angulare x 10. (D) Dolichosperma sexangualtum x 5. Based on Long (1960b, 1961b, 1969).

GCRv09c05f014
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (157kb)
HiResJPEG (1,020kb)
TIFF (3,335kb)

Figure 5.15
Section through the Early Carboniferous seeds from the Whiteadder, Mitrospermum x 5. Based on Long (1977c).

GCRv09c05f015
Thumbnail (32kb)
LoResJPEG (105kb)
HiResJPEG (455kb)
TIFF (1,266kb)

Figure 5.16
Oxroad Bay. View south across the foreshore, with Dinantian lacustrine sediments in the foreground overlain by reworked volcanigenics exposed in the cliffs. Two of the four horizons yielding anatomically-preserved plants are shown: (A) was discovered by W.T. Gordon in 1930, (C) by R.M. Bateman in 1984. Hammer is 0.3 metres long. (Photo: R.M. Bateman.)

GCRv09c05f016
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (389kb)
HiResJPEG (6,757kb)
TIFF (17,203kb)

Figure 5.17
Geological map of the Tantallon area of East Lothian, showing location of palaeobotany sites including Oxroad Bay. Based on Bateman and Scott (1990, figure 2).

GCRv09c05f017
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (257kb)
HiResJPEG (1,207kb)
TIFF (3,445kb)

Figure 5.18
Devonian and Lower Carboniferous stratigraphy in the Lothian Region, showing position of the Oxroad Bay exposures. Based on Bateman and Scott (1990, figure 1).

GCRv09c05f018
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (103kb)
HiResJPEG (547kb)
TIFF (1,749kb)

Figure 5.19
Petrified plants from North Berwick Member of the Garleton Hills Volcanic Formation (Courceyan), Oxroad Bay. (A) Tetrastichia bupatides Gordon. Transverse section of stem of shrubby pteridosperm, showing the characteristic four-lobed stele emitting paired leaf traces; Natural History Museum, London, Gordon Collection (holotype). x 10. (B) Oxroadia gracilis Alvin. Transverse section of a branch of the pseudoherbaceous rhizomorphic lycopsid, showing the coronate stele emitting leaf traces through the inner cortex; Bateman Collection, specimen OBD(?2.15)038bT/2. x 140. (C) Pullaritheca longii Rothwell and Wight cupule with Hydrasperma tenuis Long ovules attached to the placental margin. Rare example of a developmental anomaly in a fossil plant, where the abortive ovule to the right is normal, whereas the ovule to the left has a deformed, proliferated and non-functional pollen chamber (arrowed); Long Collection, Hancock Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne, specimen HM 11718. x 45. (D) Protocalamostachys farringtonii Bateman. Sporangiophore axis (left centre) emmitting two of four sporangia, the upper being a megasporangium, the lower a microsporangium; Bateman Collection, specimen OBC084gB/5. x 85. (Photos: R.M. Bateman.)

GCRv09c05f019
Thumbnail (30kb)
LoResJPEG (462kb)
HiResJPEG (6,120kb)
TIFF (16,262kb)

Figure 5.20
Fusainized plants from North Berwick Member of the Garleton Hills Volcanic Formation (Courceyan), Oxroad Bay. (A) Oxroadia gracilis Alvin. Transverse section through microphyll leaf of this rhizomorphic lycopsid, showing terete vascular strand (arrowed) surrounded by mesophyll; highlighted abaxial surface shows stomata restricted to two shallow furrows (left, centre right); Bateman Collection, specimen OBD(2.17)176:CP21. x 125. (B) Setispora pannosa (Alvin) Spinner. Elaborately ornamented megaspore of the pseudoherbaceous lycopsid Oxroadia conferta Bateman; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.52016e. x 43. (C) Oxroadia gracilis Alvin. Detail of stomata of leaf, showing paired sunken guard cells surrounded by putative subsidiary cells; Bateman Collection, specimen OBD(2.17)176:CP21. x 1900. (D) Deltasperma fouldenense Long. Platyspermic pteridosperm ovule with one half of the integument (i) removed to reveal the nucellus (n); at the bottom of the photograph is a typical apical pollen chamber; a cylindrical wall (w) surrounds the central column (c) and salpinx (s), containing a single prepollen grain (arrowed); Bateman Collection, specimen OBD(2.26)190:CP17. x 60. (Photos A, C and D: R.M. Bateman. Photo B: C.H. Shute, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f020
Thumbnail (26kb)
LoResJPEG (306kb)
HiResJPEG (4,714kb)
TIFF (14,099kb)

Figure 5.21
Map of that part of Kingwater where in situ tree stumps are preserved in the Lower Carboniferous. Based on Day (1970, figure 20).

GCRv09c05f021
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (85kb)
HiResJPEG (495kb)
TIFF (1,535kb)

Figure 5.22
Maps of the Pettycur and Kingswood End GCR Palaeobotany sites. The upper illustration is a locality map. The lower illustration shows the distribution of the main lithologies. Based on Rex and Scott (1987, figure 2).

GCRv09c05f022
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (189kb)
HiResJPEG (1,096kb)
TIFF (3,056kb)

Figure 5.23
Generalized stratigraphical section at Pettycur. Based on Scott et al. (1984, figure 9).

GCRv09c05f023
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (43kb)
HiResJPEG (217kb)
TIFF (755kb)

Figure 5.24
Paralycopodites brevifolius (Williamson) Morey and Morey. Transverse section through lycopsid stem; Natural History Museum, London, specimen WC.502. Pettycur Limestone (Asbian), Pettycur. x 4. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f024
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (203kb)
HiResJPEG (2,472kb)
TIFF (6,784kb)

Figure 5.25
Cheirostrobus pettycurensis Scott. Longitudinal section through complex equisetopsid cone showing distribution of sporangia; Natural History Museum, London, SC.3661. Pettycur Limestone (Asbian), Pettycur. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f025
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (158kb)
HiResJPEG (1,840kb)
TIFF (4,846kb)

Figure 5.26
Metaclepsydropsis duplex (Williamson) Bertrand. Transverse section through fern rachis; Natural History Museum, London, specimen WC.223. Pettycur Limestone (Asbian), Pettycur. x 4. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f026
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (211kb)
HiResJPEG (2,629kb)
TIFF (7,479kb)

Figure 5.27
Diplolabis roemeri (Solms-Laubach) Bertrand. Transverse section through fern rachis; Natural History Museum, London, specimen GC.789. Pettycur Limestone (Asbian), Pettycur. x 4. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f027
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (166kb)
HiResJPEG (2,243kb)
TIFF (5,968kb)

Figure 5.28
Stratigraphical section at Kingswood End, showing distribution of plant fossils. Based on Rex and Scott (1987, figure 4).

GCRv09c05f028
Thumbnail (18kb)
LoResJPEG (131kb)
HiResJPEG (866kb)
TIFF (2,787kb)

Figure 5.29
Lepidophloios wuenschianus (Williamson) Walton. Transverse section through lycopsid stem; Natural History Museum, London, specimen WC.456a. Visean ash deposits, Laggan. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f029
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (186kb)
HiResJPEG (2,578kb)
TIFF (7,474kb)

Figure 5.30
Loch Humphrey Burn. Photograph taken during NCC-funded re-excavation of the site in 1985. The coarse dashed lines delimit the plant-rich volcanigenic sediments of Unit 4 (see Table 5.1). The finer dashed lines mark the bases of Bed 17 (the source of Walton’s petrified nodules) and Bed 20 (rich in compressions, notably Pothocites cones). The overlying Unit 5 includes thin coals and represents a clastic swamp containing giant lycopsids; this correlates with the nearby Glenarbuck site. (Photo: R.M. Bateman.)

GCRv09c05f030
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (408kb)
HiResJPEG (5,913kb)
TIFF (16,205kb)

Figure 5.31
Geological map of area south of Loch Humphrey in the Kilpatrick Hills, showing positions of Loch Humphrey Burn and Glenarbuck sites. Based on Scott et al. (1984, figure 5).

GCRv09c05f031
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (94kb)
HiResJPEG (519kb)
TIFF (1,415kb)

Figure 5.32
Sedimentological log at Loch Humphrey Burn. Based on Scott et al. (1984, figure 8).

GCRv09c05f032
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (189kb)
HiResJPEG (1,240kb)
TIFF (3,695kb)

Figure 5.33
Sedimentological log at Glenarbuck. Based on Scott et al. (1984, figure 6).

GCRv09c05f033
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (190kb)
HiResJPEG (1,410kb)
TIFF (4,410kb)

Figure 5.34
Puddlebrook. Asbian fluvial deposits of the Drybrook Sandstone, prior to the 1982 excavations at the site. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c05f034
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (182kb)
HiResJPEG (3,027kb)
TIFF (8,860kb)

Figure 5.35
Geological map of the northern part of the Forest of Dean, showing the location of Puddlebrook Quarry. Based on Sullivan (1964, text-figure 1).

GCRv09c05f035
Thumbnail (26kb)
LoResJPEG (323kb)
HiResJPEG (2,665kb)
TIFF (7,894kb)

Figure 5.36
Eskdalia variabilis (Lele and Walton) Rowe. Leafy lycopsid shoots bearing terminal fructifications; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.62432a. Drybrook Sandstone (Asbian), Puddlebrook Quarry. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f036
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (197kb)
HiResJPEG (2,697kb)
TIFF (7,393kb)

Figure 5.37
Diplopteridium holdenii Lele and Walton. Pteridosperm frond with fructifications; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.62331a. Drybrook Sandstone (Asbian), Puddlebrook Quarry. x 0.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f037
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (260kb)
HiResJPEG (4,256kb)
TIFF (11,000kb)

Figure 5.38
Lower Carboniferous geology of the area south of Prestatyn, showing the position of the quarries at Moel Hiraddug. Based on Somerville et al. (1989, figure 1).

GCRv09c05f038
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (200kb)
HiResJPEG (1,427kb)
TIFF (4,764kb)

Figure 5.39
Clwydia decussata Lacey. Lower Carboniferous lycopsid leafy shoot; National Museum of Wales, specimen 84.27G125. Foel Formation (Chadian), Moel Hiraddug. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c05f039
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (117kb)
HiResJPEG (1,813kb)
TIFF (5,041kb)

Figure 5.40
Archaeosigillaria stobbsii Lacey. Lower Carboniferous lycopsid leafy shoots; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.16012. Foel Formation (Chadian), Moel Hiraddug. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f040
Thumbnail (31kb)
LoResJPEG (133kb)
HiResJPEG (1,633kb)
TIFF (4,095kb)

Figure 5.41
Lepidodendron sp. Lower Carboniferous lycopsid stem; National Museum of Wales, specimen 84.27G122. Foel Formation (Chadian), Moel Hiraddug. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c05f041
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (141kb)
HiResJPEG (1,966kb)
TIFF (5,430kb)

Figure 5.42
Adiantites machanekii Stur. Almost complete pteridosperm frond; Natural History Museum, specimen V.2755. Gronant Group (Brigantian), Teilia Quarry. x 0.75. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f042
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (468kb)
HiResJPEG (6,914kb)
TIFF (18,300kb)

Figure 5.43
Wardie Shore. Foreshore exposures of the upper Holkerian Wardie Shales Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c05f043
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (161kb)
HiResJPEG (1,958kb)
TIFF (5,690kb)

Figure 5.44
Map showing the main lithologies exposed at Wardie Shore. Based on McAdam and Clarkson (1986, Map 7).

GCRv09c05f044
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (101kb)
HiResJPEG (603kb)
TIFF (1,905kb)

Figure 5.45
Pothocites grantoni Paterson. Cone of archaeocalamitid equisetopsid; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.195. Glencartholm Volcanic Group (Holkerian–Asbian), Glencartholm. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f045
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (110kb)
HiResJPEG (1,469kb)
TIFF (3,674kb)

Figure 5.46
Sphenopteridium pachyrrachis (Göppert) Schimper. Almost complete pteridosperm frond; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.186. Glencartholm Volcanic Group (Holkerian–Asbian), Glencartholm. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c05f046
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (567kb)
HiResJPEG (8,394kb)
TIFF (22,128kb)

Figure 5.47
Victoria Park. In situ fossilized tree stumps in the Limestone Coal Group (lower Pendleian). (Photo: B.A. Thomas.)

GCRv09c05f047
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (179kb)
HiResJPEG (2,665kb)
TIFF (7,680kb)

Figure 5.48
Generalized section through the Carboniferous of the Glasgow area, showing the position of the Limestone Coal Group. Based on MacGregor and Walton (1972, figure 8).

GCRv09c05f048
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (99kb)
HiResJPEG (573kb)
TIFF (1,675kb)

Figure 5.49
Plan of the Fossil Grove at Victoria Park, showing distribution of in situ lycopsid stumps. Based on MacGregor and Walton (1972, figure 1).

GCRv09c05f049
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (98kb)
HiResJPEG (580kb)
TIFF (1,861kb)

Figure 6.1
The palaeogeography of the Late Carboniferous, showing the distribution of the major floristic zones (phytochoria). Based on Scotese and McKerrow (1990) and Cleal and Thomas in Cleal (1991).

GCRv09c06f001
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (120kb)
HiResJPEG (676kb)
TIFF (2,048kb)

Figure 6.2
The distribution of the principal families of vascular plants in the Late Carboniferous. Based on data from Cleal (1993).

GCRv09c06f002
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (253kb)
HiResJPEG (4,661kb)
TIFF (13,815kb)

Figure 6.3
Diorama of a Late Carboniferous (Coal Measures) tropical swamp forest. Taken from the ‘Evolution of Wales’ exhibition, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.

GCRv09c06f003
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (256kb)
HiResJPEG (4,173kb)
TIFF (11,649kb)

Figure 6.4
Reconstruction of a Late Carboniferous giant lycopsid, Lepidodendron. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 7.5).

GCRv09c06f004
Thumbnail (16kb)
LoResJPEG (112kb)
HiResJPEG (850kb)
TIFF (2,514kb)

Figure 6.5
Reconstruction of a Late Carboniferous giant equisetopsid Calamites. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 7.11; after Hirmer).

GCRv09c06f005
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (151kb)
HiResJPEG (1,190kb)
TIFF (2,951kb)

Figure 6.6
Reconstruction of a Late Carboniferous Sphenophyllum (Equisetopsida). From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 7.10; after Battenburg).

GCRv09c06f006
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (62kb)
HiResJPEG (373kb)
TIFF (1,132kb)

Figure 6.7
Reconstruction of a Late Carboniferous marattialean tree-fern Psaronius. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 6.6; after Morgan).

GCRv09c06f007
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (108kb)
HiResJPEG (718kb)
TIFF (1,997kb)

Figure 6.8
Reconstruction of a Late Carboniferous trigonocarpalean pteridosperm, Alethopteris. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 10.2; after Stewart and Delevoryas).

GCRv09c06f008
Thumbnail (21kb)
LoResJPEG (114kb)
HiResJPEG (830kb)
TIFF (2,342kb)

Figure 6.9
Reconstruction of a Late Carboniferous callistophyte liana. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 10.6; after Rothwell).

GCRv09c06f009
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (50kb)
HiResJPEG (265kb)
TIFF (547kb)

Figure 6.10
Reconstruction of Late Carboniferous cordaitaleans: (A) an arborescent form found in the palaeoequatorial swamp-forests; (B) a smaller form. From Thomas and Spicer (1987, figure 11.1; after D.H. Scott, and Rothwell and Warner).

GCRv09c06f010
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (101kb)
HiResJPEG (738kb)
TIFF (1,790kb)

Figure 6.11
Chronostratigraphical and biostratigraphical classification of the Upper Carboniferous, and the positions of the GCR palaeobotany sites.

GCRv09c06f011
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (106kb)
HiResJPEG (652kb)
TIFF (2,131kb)

Figure 6.12
Stratigraphical section at Nant Llech, showing position of plant beds. Based on Dix (1933).

GCRv09c06f012
Thumbnail (13kb)
LoResJPEG (100kb)
HiResJPEG (654kb)
TIFF (1,830kb)

Figure 6.13
Renaultia crepinii (Stur) Kidston. Part of frond from a small herbacous fern; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.23353. Lower Productive Coal Formation (Langsettian), Nant Llech. x 2. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c06f013
Thumbnail (24kb)
LoResJPEG (146kb)
HiResJPEG (1,810kb)
TIFF (5,028kb)

Figure 6.14
Neuralethopteris jongmansii Laveine. Part of trigonocarpalean frond; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.23359. Lower Productive Coal Formation (Langsettian), Nant Llech. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c06f014
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (220kb)
HiResJPEG (2,915kb)
TIFF (7,724kb)

Figure 6.15
Wadsley Fossil Forest. In situ fossilized tree stumps preserved in the lower Langsettian Middle Rock Formation. (Photo: G. Boon, Sheffield City Museum.)

GCRv09c06f015
Thumbnail (26kb)
LoResJPEG (290kb)
HiResJPEG (3,926kb)
TIFF (10,596kb)

Figure 6.16
Locality maps for Cattybrook Claypit. Based on Cleal and Thomas (1988, figure 1).

GCRv09c06f016
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (97kb)
HiResJPEG (527kb)
TIFF (1,724kb)

Figure 6.17
Stratigraphical section through part of the lower Productive Coal Formation (upper Langsettian) at Cattybrook Claypit. Based on Cleal and Thomas (1988, figure 2).

GCRv09c06f017
Thumbnail (13kb)
LoResJPEG (101kb)
HiResJPEG (691kb)
TIFF (2,355kb)

Figure 6.18
Calamites carinatus Sternberg and Calamostachys paniculata Weiss. Stem and cones of giant equisetopsids; National Museum of Wales, specimen 86.101G54. Productive Coal Formation (Langsettian), Cattybrook Claypit. x 1. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c06f018
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (157kb)
HiResJPEG (2,406kb)
TIFF (6,155kb)

Figure 6.19
Karinopteris actua (Brongniart) Boersma. Pteridosperm frond; National Museum of Wales, specimen 86.101G25. Productive Coal Formation (Langsettian), Cattybrook Claypit. x 0.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, National Museum of Wales.)

GCRv09c06f019
Thumbnail (26kb)
LoResJPEG (263kb)
HiResJPEG (4,134kb)
TIFF (11,101kb)

Figure 6.20
Nostell Priory Brickpit. Working quarry, as seen in 1985. The beds are associated with the lower Bolsovian Shafton Marine Band. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

GCRv09c06f020
Thumbnail (22kb)
LoResJPEG (250kb)
HiResJPEG (3,463kb)
TIFF (9,256kb)

Figure 6.21
Locality map for Llanbradach Quarry.

GCRv09c06f021
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (60kb)
HiResJPEG (319kb)
TIFF (1,026kb)

Figure 6.22
Geological map showing the area near Jockie’s Syke. Based on Peach and Horne (1903, plate 1).

GCRv09c06f022
Thumbnail (18kb)
LoResJPEG (51kb)
HiResJPEG (602kb)
TIFF (1,666kb)

Figure 6.23
Stratigraphical succession in the Canonbie Coalfield. Based on Peach and Horne (1903, plate 4).

GCRv09c06f023
Thumbnail (18kb)
LoResJPEG (58kb)
HiResJPEG (315kb)
TIFF (769kb)

Figure 7.1
The distribution of the principal families of vascular plants in the Permian and Triassic. Based on data from Cleal (1993).

GCRv09c07f001
Thumbnail (18kb)
LoResJPEG (225kb)
HiResJPEG (1,442kb)
TIFF (4,565kb)

Figure 7.2
The palaeogeography of the Permian, showing the distribution of the major floristic zones (phytochoria). Based on Scotese and McKerrow (1990) and Cleal and Thomas in Cleal (1991).

GCRv09c07f002
Thumbnail (17kb)
LoResJPEG (133kb)
HiResJPEG (768kb)
TIFF (2,303kb)

Figure 7.3
Reconstruction of Early Permian conifer shoot, Walchia. Based on Florin (1951).

GCRv09c07f003
Thumbnail (23kb)
LoResJPEG (85kb)
HiResJPEG (583kb)
TIFF (1,524kb)

Figure 7.4
Reconstruction of Early Permian conifer cones. Based on Florin (1951).

GCRv09c07f004
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (86kb)
HiResJPEG (559kb)
TIFF (1,521kb)

Figure 7.5
Main areas of Late Permian sedimentation in north-west Europe, showing principal palaeobotanical sites including the two GCR sites (Kimberley and Middridge). Based on Schweitzer (1986, figure 1).

GCRv09c07f005
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (280kb)
HiResJPEG (3,499kb)
TIFF (9,732kb)

Figure 7.6
Chronostratigraphical classification of the Permian and the positions of the GCR palaeobotany sites.

GCRv09c07f006
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (72kb)
HiResJPEG (416kb)
TIFF (1,361kb)

Figure 7.7
Location map for Stairhill. Based on Wagner (1983).

GCRv09c07f007
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (42kb)
HiResJPEG (185kb)
TIFF (524kb)

Figure 7.8
Ullmannia frumentaria (Brongniart) Göppert. Conifer shoot; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.35130. Marl Slate (Upper Permian), Middridge Quarry. x 0.5. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c07f008
Thumbnail (19kb)
LoResJPEG (86kb)
HiResJPEG (1,163kb)
TIFF (2,943kb)

Figure 7.9
Samaropsis triangularis (Geinitz) Seward. Conifer seed; Natural History Museum, London, V.6209. Marl Slate (Upper Permian), Kimberley Railway Cutting. x 3. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c07f009
Thumbnail (25kb)
LoResJPEG (155kb)
HiResJPEG (2,053kb)
TIFF (5,086kb)

Figure 7.10
Pseudovoltzia liebeana (Geinitz) Florin. Cone scale from a conifer; Natural History Museum, London, specimen V.35128. Marl Slate (Upper Permian), Kimberley Railway Cutting. x 3. (Photo: Photographic Studio, Natural History Museum, London.)

GCRv09c07f010
Thumbnail (26kb)
LoResJPEG (113kb)
HiResJPEG (1,460kb)
TIFF (3,705kb)

Table 1.1
The Palaeozoic palaeobotany GCR sites

GCRv09c01t001
Thumbnail (15kb)
LoResJPEG (122kb)
HiResJPEG (648kb)
TIFF (1,521kb)

Table 5.1
Lithostratigraphy of Loch Humphrey Burn (after R.M. Bateman, unpublished)

GCRv09c05t001
Thumbnail (20kb)
LoResJPEG (148kb)
HiResJPEG (846kb)
TIFF (2,627kb)

XML solutions by J S Publications