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Volume 10: Fossil Reptiles of Great Britain — Chapter 07
 

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Chap 07
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Figure 7.1
The rapidly eroding exposure of Oxford Clay at Furzy Cliff, Overcombe. Fossil reptile bones came from the Jordan Cliff Clays, at the bottom of the sequence. (Photo: M.J. Benton.)

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Figure 7.2
The pliosaur Pliosaurus brachyspondylus (Owen, 1840), an associated skeleton found in 1889 in the Kimmeridge Clay of Roswell Pits, Ely. (A) The lower jaw in crown view; (B) tooth; (C) cervical vertebra in anterior and ventral views; (D) vertebral column, and associated elements, in dorsal view; (E) reconstructed shoulder girdle. After Tarlo (1959a).

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Figure 7.3
The ornithopod dinosaur Camptosaurus. (A) Partial restoration of the skull of C. prestwichii (Hulke, 1880) showing the known fragments of bone; (B) restored skull of the North American C. dispar Marsh, 1879; (C) restoration of the skeleton of C. prestwichii (Hulke, 1880): the bones present include parts of the skull, much of the vertebral column, forelimbs and hindlimbs. After Galton and Powell (1980).

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Figure 7.4
The Kimmeridgian of Kimmeridge Bay, showing dipping limestone and shale units, facing south. (Photo: M.J. Benton.)

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Figure 7.5
Kimmeridgian reptiles from Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset. (A) The elongate slender snout of the marine crocodile Steneosaurus megarhinus (Hulke, 1871) in ventral view; (B) lower jaw of Colymbosaurus trochanterius (Owen, 1840) in crown view; (C) skeleton of the ichthyosaur Nannopterygius (Ichthyosaurus) enthekiodon (Hulke, 1871). (A) after Hulke (1871b); (B) after Owen (1861); (C) after Hulke (1871a).

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Figure 7.6
(A) Locality map and vertical section of the Swyre Head–Chapman’s Pool Kimmeridge Clay site on the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset. The beds dip gently southwards, and the shales and mudstones are punctuated by distinctive limestone beds (‘stone bands’) which have been named. These may also be matched with the (B) tabulation of the ammonite zones of the Kimmeridgian. Abbreviations: (42) Blake’s Bed 42; (BS) Blackstone; (FS) Freshwater Steps Stone Band; (r.N) rotunda Nodules; (SB) Stone Band; (W) White Stone Band; (YL) Yellow Ledge Stone Band; (in the zonal chart, B, L, M, U and T refer to basal, lower, middle, upper and topmost parts of the zones). After Taylor and Benton (1986); based on Cope (1967, 1978); Cope et al. (1980b); Cox and Gallois (1981).

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Figure 7.7
The plesiosauroid Kimmerosaurus langhami Brown, 1981, from the Upper Kimmeridge Clay of Egmont Bay. (A) Restoration of the skull in lateral view; (B) lower jaws viewed from above. After Brown (1981).

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Figure 7.8
Some typical marine reptiles of Late Jurassic times in southern England. (A) The pliosaur Liopleurodon, one of the largest marine predators of all time at 12 m long. (B) The ichthyosaur Ichthyosaurus, which was 3–4 m long. (C) The plesiosauroid Cryptoclidus, which was 4 m long. These animals occur typically in the Oxford Clay and Kimmeridge Clay faunas. Drawn by John G. Martin, copyright City of Bristol Museums and Art Gallery.

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Figure 7.9
Nicodemus Nob on the eastern side of the Isle of Portland, showing the partly overgrown quarried cliffline. Upper parts of the Portland sequence are exposed. (Photo: M.J. Benton.)

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Figure 7.10
Broadcroft Quarries on the Isle of Portland, showing large blocks quarried for building stone. Fossil reptiles have been found in most of the inland and cliffline quarries. (Photo: M.J. Benton.)

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Figure 7.11
Turtles from the Portlandian of the Isle of Portland. (A) Plesiochelys planiceps (Owen, 1842), skull in partially restored ventral view; (B) Portlandemys mcdowelli Gaffney, 1975, partial skull in ventral view. In both cases, the toothless jaws are directed to the top, and the palate and braincase extend to the bottom. The top of both skulls is missing. After Gaffney (1975a).

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Figure 7.12
The latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous sequences in Durlston Bay, showing marine limestones in the northern part of the section. (Photo: J.L. Wright.)

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Figure 7.13
Cliff profiles of Durlston Bay showing the type section of the Durlston Beds (after Strahan, 1898).

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Figure 7.14
Sedimentary log of the reptile-bearing units at Durlston Bay. Bone and footprint symbols indicate fossiliferous horizons. Supplied by W.A. Wimbledon.

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Figure 7.15
A small selection of the Purbeck menagerie from Durlston Bay: turtles, sphenodontid, and lizards. (A) The skull of the cryptodire turtle Mesochelys durlstonensis Evans and Kemp, 1975, in dorsal and lateral views; (B) the skull of the cryptodire turtle Dorsetochelys delairi Evans and Kemp, 1976, in dorsal and lateral views; (C) the sphenodontid ?Homoeosaurus, partial left lower jaw; (D) the lizard Paramacellodus oweni Hoffstetter, 1967, left lower jaw in lateral and medial views; (E) the lizard Becklesius hoffstetteri (Seiffert, 1973), left lower jaw in lateral and medial views; (F) the lizard Saurillus obtusus Owen, 1854, anterior end of right lower jaw in lateral and medial views; (G) the lizard Pseudosaurillus becklesi Hoffstetter, 1967, right lower jaw in lateral and medial views; (H) the lizard Dorsetisaurus purbeckensis Hoffstetter, 1967, left lower jaw in lateral and medial views. (A) after Evans and Kemp (1975); (B) after Evans and Kemp (1976); (C) after Boulenger (1891); (D)–(H) after Estes (1983), based on various sources.

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Figure 7.16
A small selection of the Purbeck menagerie from Durlston Bay: crocodilians and dinosaurs. (A) Skull of the crocodilian Goniopholis simus Owen, 1878, in dorsal view; (B) skull of the crocodilian Nannosuchus gracilidens Owen, 1879, in dorsal view; (C) skull of the crocodilian Theriosuchus pusillus Owen, 1879, in dorsal view; (D) elongate cervical vertebra of the pterosaur Doratorhynchus validus Owen, 1870, dorsal view; (E) the ornithopod dinosaur Echinodon becklesi Owen, 1861, partially restored snout region, and detail of lower jaw; (F) jaw fragment of the theropod dinosaur Nuthetes pusillus Owen, 1854, in lateral and medial views. (A)–(C) after Joffe (1967); (D) after Howse (1986); (E) after Galton (1978); (F) after Owen (1854).

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