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Volume 11: British Upper Carboniferous Stratigraphy
 

Figure 1.1
Main outcrops of Upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks in Britain. Adapted from maps in Duff and Smith (1992), and Macgregor and Macgregor (1966).

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Figure 1.2
Historical development of the Heerlen Classification of the Upper Carboniferous.

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Figure 1.3
The relationship between the stages of the Heerlen Classification and the biozones established for the most useful fossil groups in the Upper Carboniferous of Britain.

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Figure 1.4
The chronostratigraphical positions of the main marine bands in the Westphalian of Britain.

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Figure 1.5
Late Carboniferous palaeogeography after Scotese (1986; modified from Laveine , 1993 ), showing the position of the palaeoequatorial belt.

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Figure 2.1
Gill Beck GCR site. International stratotype for the Arnsbergian–Chokierian stage boundary. Photographed during the visit to the site by the IUGS Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy, August 1981. (Photo: W. A. Wimbledon.)

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Figure 2.2
Log of section at Gill Beck. Based on Riley (1987, fig. 2).

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Figure 2.3
Log of section at Blake Brook. Based on Ramsbottom (1981, p. 8.3).

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Figure 2.4
River Darwen GCR site. International stratotype for the Alportian–Kinderscoutian stage boundary. Photographed during the visit to the site by the IUGS Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy, August 1981. (Photo: W. A. Wimbledon.)

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Figure 2.5
Log of section at River Darwen. Based on Ramsbottom (1981, pp. 4.5–4.8).

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Figure 2.6
Park Clough GCR site. International stratotype for the Kinderscoutian–Marsdenian stage boundary. Photographed during the visit to the site by the IUGS Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy, August 1981. (Photo: W. A. Wimbledon.)

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Figure 2.7
Log of section at Park Clough. Based on Ramsbottom (1981, p.10.3).

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Figure 2.8
Log of section at Orchard Farm. Based on Ramsbottom (1981, p.9.3).

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Figure 2.9
Little Don GCR site. International stratotype for the Yeadonian–Langsettian stage boundary. Photographed during the visit to the site by the IUGS Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy, August 1981. (Photo: W. A. Wimbledon.)

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Figure 2.10
Log of section at Little Don. Based on Owens (1985, fig. 2).

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Figure 2.11
Log of section at Duckmanton Railway Cutting. Based on Owens (1985, fig. 3).

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Figure 2.12
Log of section at Doe Lea. Based on Owens (1985, fig. 4).

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Figure 3.1
Map of parts of Devon and north Cornwall, showing the distribution of Upper Carboniferous deposits. Based on Thomas (1988, fig. 4.2).

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Figure 3.2
Relationship between the Crackington, Bideford and Bude formations in southwest England. Based on Edmonds (1979, fig. 8).

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Figure 3.3
Crackington Coast GCR site. Typical convoluted sequence of Crackington Formation. (Photo: R.A. Cottle.)

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Figure 3.4
Crackington Coast GCR site. Turbidite sequence in Crackington Formation. (Photo: R.A. Cottle.)

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Figure 3.5
Crackington Coast GCR site, south side of Crackington Haven. Sole markings in Crackington Formation. (Photo: R.A. Cottle.)

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Figure 3.6
Folded sandstones exposed 90 m NW of Clovelly Harbour, Clovelly Coast GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A5925).

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Figure 3.7
Stratigraphical log of the upper Crackington Formation exposed in the Clovelly Coast GCR site. Based on Edmonds (1979, fig. 11(7)).

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Figure 3.8
Abbotsham GCR site. Typical Bideford Formation succession folded into sharp anticline. (Photo: R.A. Cottle.)

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Figure 3.9
Stratigraphical log of the Bideford Formation at Abbotsham Coast GCR site. Based on Edmonds (1979, fig. 9).

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Figure 3.10
Cornborough Cliffs, 1.6 km SW of Westward Ho!, Abbotsham Coast GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A5935).

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Figure 3.11
Maer Cliff, near Bude, Bude Coast GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A5901).

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Figure 3.12
Stratigraphical log of the Bude Formation at Bude Coast GCR site, based on Freshney (1979, fig. 3).

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Figure 3.13
Bude Coast GCR site. Typical thick sandstones of Bude Formation. (Photo: R.A. Cottle.)

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Figure 4.1
Map of the Upper Carboniferous of South Wales. Based on George (1970).

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Figure 4.2
Formational classification of the Upper Carboniferous of South Wales.

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Figure 4.3
Palaeogeographical evolution of South Wales through the Late Carboniferous. (a) Kinderscoutian; (b) Yeadonian; (c) Duckmantian - note that whereas deltaic complexes A and B were most fully-developed in the early part of this time interval, delta-lobes C and D were more prominent in the period immediately preceeding the Cefn Coed marine transgression.. Based on Kelling (1974, figs 45–7).

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Figure 4.4
Coast between Saundersfoot and Monkstone Point, Tenby–Saundersfoot Coast GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A333).

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Figure 4.5
Upper Carboniferous stratigraphy exposed along the Tenby–Saundersfoot coast. Based on Jones (1974, fig. 25) and Jenkins (1962, pl. 5).

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Figure 4.6
Monkstone Point, Tenby–Saundersfoot Coast GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A339).

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Figure 4.7
Millstone Grit successions of the north crop of the South Wales Coalfield. All after Jones (1974, fig. 24).

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Figure 4.8
Coal Measures exposed along the Amroth Coast. After Jenkins (1962, pl. 5).

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Figure 4.9
Coal Measures exposed along the Amroth Coast. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.10
Amroth Coast GCR site, north of Wiseman’s Bridge. Typical sequence of shales and crevasse splay sandstones of the Productive Coal Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.11
Nolton Haven GCR site, looking north from near Rickets Head. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.12
Sequence through the South Wales Pennant Formation exposed at Nolton Haven. Based on Jenkins (1962, fig. 7).

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Figure 4.13
Nolton Haven GCR site. Rickets Head. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.14
Farewell Rock exposed behind Angel Inn, Vale of Neath GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A11957).

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Figure 4.15
Vale of Neath GCR site. Subcrenatum Marine Band.

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Figure 4.16
Cwm Gwrelych–Nant Llyn Fach GCR site. Succession above the Parkhouse Marine Band (lower Langsettian). (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.17
Cwm Gwrelych–Nant Llyn Fach GCR site. Channel sandstones in upper Langsettian. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.18
Lower Westphalian successions in South Wales. (a) Cwm Gwrelych; (b) Nant Llech; (c) Brynmawr. Based on Leitch (1958).

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Figure 4.19
Cwm Gwrelych–Nant Llyn Fach GCR site. Productive Coal Formation above the Vanderbeckei Marine Band (lower Duckmantian). (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.20
Cwm Gwrelych–Nant Llyn Fach GCR site. Cockshot Rock (upper Duckmantian). (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.21
Exposure of Pennant Formation seen at Earlswood Road Cutting. Based on unpublished information provided by Professor G. Kelling.

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Figure 4.22
Rhondda Member of the Pennant Formation exposed at Earlswood Road Cutting (as seen in 1982). (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.23
Earlswood Roundabout (March 1992): newly created cutting at the cusp between the slip road and main carriageway of the M4 extension between Briton Ferry and Lon Lâs. Excellent dip and strike sections through the Rhondda Member?? (Pennant Formation) enable detailed sedimentological studies to be conducted in this complex deltaic succession. (Photo: S. Campbell.)

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Figure 4.24
Rhondda Member of the Pennant Formation exposed at Blaenrhondda Road Cutting. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.25
Penllergaer Railway Cutting exposing part of the Grovesend Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.26
Exposures of lower Coal Measures seen at Brynmawr Road Cutting. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.27
Log of sequence exposed at Wern Ddu. Based on Moore (1945).

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Figure 4.28
Wern Ddu GCR site, where a condensed Coal Measures sequence on the eastern margins of the South Wales Coalfield can be seen. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 4.29
Exposed sequence at Coed-y-Darren. Based on Squirrell (1971, pp. 51–2).

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Figure 5.1
Map of the Forest of Dean and Severn coalfields. Based on Gayer and Stead (1971, fig. 1) and Cleal (1986a, fig. 1).

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Figure 5.2
Generalized sequence of the Upper Carboniferous of the Forest of Dean. Based on Gayer and Stead (1971, fig. 3).

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Figure 5.3
Stratigraphical relationship between the Forest of Dean and South Wales coalfields. After Cleal (1991, fig. 2).

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Figure 5.4
Forest of Dean Pennant Formation lying unconformably on Carboniferous Limestone, seen at Howbeach Slade Quarry, Meezy Hurst GCR site. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 5.5
Position of Coleford High Delf coal, Meezy Hurst GCR site. (Photo: C.J. Cleal).

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Figure 5.6
Puddlebrook Quarry GCR site. Conglomerates at the base of Trenchard Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 5.7
Upper Carboniferous sandstones of the Severn Coalfield, exposed near Portishead Pier. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 6.1
Map of the Bristol–Somerset Coalfield. After Kellaway and Welch (1993).

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Figure 6.2
Generalized Upper Carboniferous sequence in the Bristol–Somerset Coalfield.

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Figure 6.3
Stratigraphical section exposed on the south-east side of Cattybrook Claypit. Based on Cleal and Thomas (1988, fig. 2).

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Figure 6.4
Exposures of the Downend Formation, seen along the banks of the River Avon at Bickley Wood. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 6.5
Exposures of the Mangotsfield Formation, seen at Winterbourne Railway Cutting. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.1
Upper Carboniferous outcrops in the English Midlands and northern Welsh Borders. Based on Hains and Horton (1969, pl. II), and Earp and Hains (1971, fig. 2).

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Figure 7.2
Relationship of Upper Carboniferous lithostratigraphical units in the English Midlands. Based on Besly (1988, fig. 15.2).

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Figure 7.3
Eyemore Railway Cutting GCR site. Exposures are above the protective casing at the far end of the cutting as shown in the photograph. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.4
The Aegiranum Marine Band (Duckmantian–Bolsovian boundary) exposed on the Severn Valley Railway Line at Eyemore. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.5
Base of the Coal Measures lying unconformably on Upper Silurian beds at Brewin’s Canal Cutting. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.6
Lower Westphalian rocks exposed at the now disused Doulton’s Claypit, Brierley Hill. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.7
Etruria Formation exposed at Ketley Claypit. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.8
Etruria Formation exposed at New Hadley Brickworks. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.9
Vertical sequence through part of the Etruria Formation at New Hadley Brickworks. After Besly (1988, fig. 15.7c).

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Figure 7.10
Halesowen Formation lying unconformably on Etruria Formation, as seen at Kingsbury Brickworks. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.11
Halesowen Formation exposed at Kingsbury Brickworks. Based on Besly (1988, fig. 15.11c).

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Figure 7.12
Halesowen Road Cutting GCR site. Halesowen Formation exposed in type area. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.13
Contact between Newcastle and Etruria formations at Metallic Tileries. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.14
Newcastle Formation exposed at Metallic Tileries. Based on Besly (1988, fig. 15.11b).

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Figure 7.15
Keele Beds exposed at Cheswardine Canal Cutting. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.16
Keele Beds exposed at Cheswardine Canal Cutting. Based on information supplied by B. Besly (pers. comm.).

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Figure 7.17
Sandstones known as the ‘Keele Formation’ exposed at Alveley Grindstone Quarry. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 7.18
Gospel End Road Cutting. Exposures of Enville Formation. (Photo: C.J. Cleal).

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Figure 7.19
Enville Formation (distal alluvial facies association) exposed at Webster’s Claypit. Based on Besly (1988, fig. 15.13b).

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Figure 7.20
Alluvial plain deposits of the Enville Formation, as exposed at Webster’s Claypit in the early 1980s. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 8.1
Upper Carboniferous outcrops in North Wales. Based on Ramsbottom (1974, fig. 38), and Calver and Smith (1974, fig. 41).

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Figure 9.1
Millstone Grit outcrop of the Central Province, between the Wales–Brabant Barrier to the south and the Askrigg Block to the north. Based on Edwards and Trotter (1954, fig. 2).

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Figure 9.2
The distribution of major sandstone bodies in the Millstone Grit of the Central Province. Based on Collinson (1988, fig. 9.5).

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Figure 9.3
The relationship between individual basins in the Central Province during the middle Namurian. Based on Lee (1988, fig. 8.8).

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Figure 9.4
The three main types of deltaic sedimentation recognizable in the Millstone Grit of the Central Province. Based on Collinson (1988, fig. 9.4).

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Figure 9.5
Chart showing GCR site coverage in the basinal facies of the Millstone Grit in the Central Province.

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Figure 9.6
Proteus Marine Band and underlying quartzitic sandstones of the lower Millstone Grit of the Staffordshire Basin at Pot Bank Quarry. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (L247).

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Figure 9.7
Gib Tor. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (L1241).

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Figure 9.8
Section on the east bank of the River Noe, 320 m NNE of Fulwood Holmes, exposing Edale Shales (Millstone Grit) with bullions containing the ammonoid . Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (L210).

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Figure 9.9
Mam Tor Formation (Millstone Grit) exposed at Mam Tor. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (L211).

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Figure 9.10
Alport Castles GCR site. Exposures of Millstone Grit. (Photo: R.A. Cottle.)

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Figure 9.11
Shale Grit and Grindslow Shale formations exposed at Blackden Brook. After Walker (1966a).

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Figure 9.12
Geographical distribution of some of the localized shell beds in the Kinderscoutian of the Central Province. Based on Ramsbottom (1974, fig. 30).

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Figure 9.13
Hodge Clough. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A2523).

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Figure 9.14
Pule Hill. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A4559).

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Figure 9.15
Upper Millstone Grit of the Craven Basin exposed at Harper Clough, including the famous rooting system. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (A2646).

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Figure 10.1
Coal Measures outcrop in the Pennine Basin, between the Wales–Brabant Barrier to the south and the Askrigg Block to the north. Based on Guion and Fielding (1988, fig. 13.1).

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Figure 10.2
Relationship between the Coal Measures, Millstone Grit and Carboniferous Limestone in the Pennine Basin. Based on Guion and Fielding (1988, fig. 13.5).

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Figure 10.3
Generalized depositional models for the Pennine Basin Coal Measures. (a) Early Langsettian, lower delta-plain setting; (b) Late Langsettian to middle Duckmantian, middle to upper delta-plain setting. Based on Guion and Fielding (1988, fig. 13.8).

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Figure 10.4
Crawshaw Sandstone overlying the Subcrenatum Marine Band at Ridgeway Quarry. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.5
Section exposed at Ridgeway Quarry, showing the Crawshaw Sandstone overlying the Subcrenatum Marine Band. Based on Guion and Fielding (1988, fig. 13.9a).

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Figure 10.6
Generalized depositional patterns for the Crawshaw Sandstone Formation. Based on Guion (1971).

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Figure 10.7
Belperlawn Coal (lower Langsettian) exposed at Ambergate Quarry. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.8
Section as originally exposed at Ambergate Quarry, drawn from a log given by Neves (1967, p. 46).

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Figure 10.9
Langsettian exposures at Neepsend Brickworks. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.10
Main exposed face at Neepsend Brickworks. Based on Davies (1967, fig. 18.2).

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Figure 10.11
Neepsend Brickworks GCR site. Xiphosurid trace fossil. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.12
Classic exposure of marine bands and non-marine bivalve beds at Honley Railway Cutting, now badly overgrown. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.13
Sequence originally exposed at Honley Railway Cutting. Based on Eagar (1947, fig. 7c).

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Figure 10.14
Example of the type of pictogram developed by Eagar to express the variation in non-marine bivalve shells. This one represents the assemblage from a 0.6 m thick mudstone immediately overlying the Holbrook Marine Band. Based on Eagar (1947, fig. 8).

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Figure 10.15
Lower Langsettian deposits exposed at Goyt’s Moss. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.16
Sections through strata immediately overlying the Goyt’s Coal at Goyt’s Moss. Based on Eagar and Broadhurst (1991, fig. 7).

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Figure 10.17
Lower Langsettian lacustrine deposits exposed at Ravenhead Brickworks. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.18
Part of the sequence above the Lower Mountain Mine visible at Ravenhead Brickworks, showing sandstone–mudstone couplets thought to represent seasonal deposits in a lacustrine environment. Based on Broadhurst (1988, fig. 19.3).

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Figure 10.19
Sequence exposed along the Neepsend Railway Cutting. Drawn from descriptions given in Eden (1957).

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Figure 10.20
Wharncliffe Crags Formation exposed at its type locality. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.21
Beds associated with the Amaliae Marine Band exposed at Elland Bypass Cutting. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.22
Lowside Brickworks GCR site. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.23
Bradgate Brickworks, exposing the Productive Coal Formation as developed in the Pennine Basin. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.24
Sketch of face at Bradgate Brickworks, as recorded by Spears (1967, fig. 19.2).

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Figure 10.25
Bradgate Brickworks GCR site. Close up of face, with hammer for scale. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.26
Peel Hall Rock exposed at Mill Hill on the River Tonge. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.27
Maltby Marine Band exposed at Ashclough. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.28
Stairfoot Brickworks GCR site. Original exposure of Aegiranum Marine Band. Photographed during the visit to the site by the IUGS Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy, August 1981. (Photo: W. A. Wimbledon.)

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Figure 10.29
Nostell Brickyard Quarry, as visible in the mid-1980s. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.30
Carlton Main Brickworks. (Photo: C.J. Cleal.)

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Figure 10.31
Section exposed at Carlton Main Brickworks. Drawn from descriptive log in Goossens and Bell (1969).

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Figure 11.1
Upper Carboniferous of the Northern England area (including southernmost Scotland). Based on Taylor (1971, fig. 13).

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Figure 11.2
Distribution of main basins in Northern England in the Late Carboniferous. Based on Johnson (1984, fig. 1).

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Figure 11.3
Millstone Grit exposed along Mousegill Beck. Based on Owens and Burgess (1965).

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Figure 11.4
Typical exposures of the Productive Coal Formation exposed at Hartley Cliff, 160 m S of Crag Point, Tynemouth to Seaton Sluice GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (L630).

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Figure 11.5
Sequence of Duckmantian strata seen along the coast between Tynemouth and Seaton Sluice. Reconstructed from information given in Jones (1967).

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Figure 11.6
Charley’s Garden, Tynemouth to Seaton Sluice GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (L637).

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Figure 12.1
Upper Carboniferous outcrops in the Midland Valley of Scotland. Based on Macgregor and Macgregor (1961, pl. 8).

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Figure 12.2
Main controls on sedimentation in the Scottish Basin in the Late Carboniferous. (a) Namurian; (b) lower Westphalian. Based on Read (1988, figs 16.12 and 16.14).

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Figure 12.3
Opencast in bauxitic clay at High Smithstone. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (C2427).

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Figure 12.4
Bauxitic Clay Formation present at High Smithstone Quarry. Based on Monro (1985, fig. 7).

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Figure 12.5
Joppa Shore GCR site, foreshore exposures. (Photo: C.C.J. McFadyen.)

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Figure 12.6
Upper Carboniferous sequence exposed at Joppa Shore. (Photo: C.C.J. McFadyen.)

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Figure 12.7
Exposed Upper Carboniferous beds at Joppa Shore. Based on Peach (1910).

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Figure 12.8
Polhote and Polneul Burns. Polhote Burn, 1.3 km upstream from the junction with the River Nith, showing the basal part of the sequence unconformable on Ordovician strata, and including the Polhote Marine Band. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (D1159).

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Figure 12.9
Upper Carboniferous exposed along the Polehote and Polneul Burns. Based on data given in Davies (1970).

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Figure 12.10
Upper Carboniferous succession exposed at Corrie Burn, Arran. Drawn from measurements given by Leitch (1942).

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Figure 12.11
Dunaskin Glen. View of the lower part of the succession. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved (C3083).

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Figure 12.12
Coal Measures exposed at Dunaskin Glen. Based on Mykura (1967, pl. 1).

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Figure 12.13
Coal Measures exposed along Quarry Burn, Inninmore Bay. Based on measurements given in Macgregor and Manson (1935).

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Figure 12.14
Barren Red Formation exposed near caves at Wemyss, East Wemyss to Buckhaven Coast GCR site. Reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: NERC copyright reserved ( B410).

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