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Volume 16: Fossil Fishes of Great Britain — Chapter 05
 

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Figure 5.1
Palaeogeography of the Early Devonian in northern Britain (after Bluck et al., 1992). (A) palaeogeography of Lochkovian time, c. 408 Ma; (B) palaeogeography of Late Pragian–Emsian time, c. 400 Ma. Continuing movement of the fault-bounded blocks dominated the area of Scotland throughout this interval, with uplift continuing to the north and south of the Midland Valley.

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Figure 5.2
Lateral variation in the Lower Devonian strata of the Strathmore Syncline in the northeast of the Midland Valley of Scotland (after Armstrong and Paterson, 1970).

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Figure 5.3
Cephalaspis lyelli Agassiz. (A), (B) Dorsal and (C) lateral views of the headshield and trunk region of the lectotype (NHM P 20087) from Glamis, Angus (after White, 1958b): lsf, lateral sensory field; msf, median sensory field; n, nasal hypophysis; o, orbit; p, pineal; pa, pectoral appendage.

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Figure 5.4
Cephalaspids from the Early Devonian of Scotland (from Stensiö, 1932, © The Natural History Museum, London). (A) Cephalaspis powriei Lankester headshield in dorsal view after specimen RSM 138, × 0.8; (B) C. spinifer headshield after the holotype RSM 1891.92.149, × 0.8; (C) C. spinifer complete animal in dorsal view, × 0.7.

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Figure 5.5
New restorations of Scottish Early Devonian thelodonts by Turner (1992): (A) Turinia pagei (Powrie); (B) Lanarkia spinosa Traquair; (C) Loganellia scotica (Traquair), in which post-pectoral fin and tail are hypothetical. All are c. × 0.75.

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Figure 5.6
Restorations of acanthodians from the Early Devonian of Scotland. (A) Mesacanthus mitchelli (Egerton), × 2.0; (B), (C) Euthacanthus macnicoli Powrie × 0.8 in lateral and ventral views; (D) Ischnacanthus gracilis (Egerton), × 1.25 approx.; (E) Mesacanthus sp. approximately natural size (taken with permission from J. Long, 1995); (F) Parexus sp., approximately natural size. From various sources.

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Figure 5.7
(A) Tillywhandland Quarry: the succession (after Trewin and Davidson, 1996). (B) Tillywhandland Quarry: the recorded positions of the fauna and flora within the fish bed (after Trewin and Davidson, 1996).

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Figure 5.8
Characteristic acanthodian scales from Tillywhandland Quarry. (A) Ischnacanthus gracilis (Egerton), NHM P 62266, scales rhombic, sub-rhombic or polygonal, relatively flat to gently convex and smooth; (B) Mesacanthus mitchelli (Egerton), P 140 and 10892, scales smooth with flat crowns, sharp posterior point; (C) Euthacanthus macnicoli Powrie, scales with simple ribs, very flat crowns with five to ten well-spaced grooves. (Courtesy V.T. Young.)

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Figure 5.9
A restoration of the margins of ‘Lake Forfar’ as proposed by Trewin and Davidson (1996). A vagrant benthos of cephalaspids, eurypterids and other invertebrates occupied the shallows; acanthodians lived in the open waters. Bottom conditions were probably oxygen-poor. Terrestrial arthropods inhabited the vegetated land adjacent to the lake. From nearby volcanoes quantities of fine ash periodically drifted over the lake, while there was throughout a seasonally variable input of fine fluvial sediment.

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Figure 5.10
Aberlemno Quarry, stratigraphical section (after Armstrong, 1978).

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Figure 5.11
Cephalaspids from Wolf’s Hole Quarry. (A) Cephalaspis scotica White, imperfect headshield is dorsal aspect, holotype RSM Powrie collection 1981.92.135, × 2. (B) Securiaspis waterstoni White, imperfect headshield in dorsal aspect, holotype, Perth Museum, unregistered, × 1. (C) Securiaspis caledonica White, external impression of headshield. Area to left of dotted line is restored. Perth Museum, unregistered, slightly less than natural size. (From White, 1963)

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Figure 5.12
Pteraspis mitchelli Powrie from Wolf's Hole Quarry. (A), (B) Negative and positive counterparts of a small dorsal shield. Lectotype, Bridge of Alan, RSM Powrie Collection, 1891.92.118 and 117, × 1. (C) External impression of imperfect dorsal shield, Bridge of Alan, Perth Museum, unregistered, × 1. (D) Very imperfect dorsal shield figured by Lankester (1868), Bridge of Alan, RSM Powrie Collection, 1892.92.119, × 1. (E) External impression if imperfect dorsal shield. Specimen figured by White (1935). Bridge of Alan, NHM P 16808, × 1. (F) external impression of small dorsal shield. RSM Powrie Collection, 1892.92.122 × 1. (All figures from White, 1963.)

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