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Volume 16: Fossil Fishes of Great Britain — Chapter 06
 

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Figure 6.1
Palaeogeography of the Middle Devonian, 380–375 Ma, of Scotland and adjacent North Sea (after Bluck et. al., 1992).

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Figure 6.2
Stratigraphical sections of the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, Orkney and Shetland, with GCR site shown.

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Figure 6.3
Ranges of the common fossil fishes in the Middle Old Red Sandstone of the Orcadian Basin compared with the Eastern Baltic vertebrate biozones (largely after Donovan et al., 1974; Dineley and Loeffler, 1993; and Mark-Kurik, 1978). Z, Biozones distinguished by Donovan et al., (1974): 1, Thursius macrolepidotus; 2, Coccosteus cuspidatus; 3, Palaeospondylus gunni; 4, Dickosteus threiplandi; 5, Asmussia murchisoniana; 6, Millerosteus minor; 7, Watsonosteus fletti. A, Asterolepis; P, Psammosteus; Sch, Schizosteus

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Figure 6.4
Diagrammatic reconstruction of the marginal environments around the Middle Devonian Orcadian Basin of Scotland and the North Sea at a time of high stable water level (after Trewin, 1986). The shallow-water well-oxygenated zone (A) provided a variety of habitats for the fish, which were ultimately preserved in the deeper deoxygenated zone (B).

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Figure 6.5
Fossil fishes from Westerdale Quarry. (A) The lungfish Dipterus valenciennesi Agassiz (Photo: courtesy The Natural History Museum, London, T00826/A), approximately natural size. (B) D. valenciennesi in restoration by Ahlberg and Trewin (1995); (C) the osteolepid Thursius (Photo: courtesy The Natural History Museum, London, T00448/A), c. 12 cm; (D) T. macrolepidotus (Sedgwick and Murchison) (from Jarvik, 1948a).

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Figure 6.6
The section of Achanarras Quarry, after Trewin (1986). Numbers 1–6 are the main fossiliferous horizons.

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Figure 6.7
Achanarras Quarry (photo: D.L. Dineley).

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Figure 6.8
Particularly fossiliferous horizons with well-preserved fishes may result from mass mortality events induced by planktonic blooms. The axonic conditions extend throughout the shallow marginal areas (A); following this, carcasses drift into deeper water in a bloated conditions (B); after further decay (C), they sink through the thermocline and are preserved in laminites in the anoxic hypolimnion (D). The depth of the thermocline may have been no more than a few tens of metres (after Trewin, 1986).

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Figure 6.9
Common fishes at Achanarras Quarry: Pterichthyodes milleri (Miller) reconstructions in (A) dorsal, (B) ventral and (C) lateral aspects, × 0.33 approximately. (D) Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair in characteristic preservation with the head and anterior end in dorsal view but the posterior part of the vertebral column in lateral view, after Moy-Thomas (1940). (D) Photograph GLAHM V7015 showing typical compression preservation, c. × 0.8 (Photo: courtesy of Hunterian Museum, Glasgow). (F) T05399/A, with an early model of the animal, × 0.5 (Photo: courtesy The Natural History Museum, London). (G) Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair in characteristic preservation with the head and anterior end in dorsal view but the posterior part of the vertebral column in lateral view, c. × 6 (Photo: courtesy of the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow). (H) Dipterus valenciennesi Agassiz Photograph GLAMH V3656 showing the commonly well-preserved nature of this fossil lungfish, c. × 0.75 (Photo: courtesy of the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow).

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Figure 6.10
Geological sketch map of GCR Site Cruaday Quarry, Mainland, Orkney, based on the Geological Survey Orkney sheet.

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Figure 6.11
The Sandwick Fish Bed (after Trewin, 1976), showing division of the fish-bearing laminites into an upper and a lower leaf. Fish distribution is shown in the histograms for the upper leaf. ‘Larger acanthodians’ are mostly Mesacanthus and Cheiracanthus.

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Figure 6.12
Acanthodian species from Cruaday Quarry. Restoration of Diplacanthus crassisimus Duff: (A) lateral view; (B) ventral view, approximately natural size. (C), (D) Scales of D. crassisimus, posterior to the right: (C) exterior view; (D) side view, c. × 60. (E), (F) Scales of Cheiracanthus murchisoni; (E) interior view; (F) exterior view, c. × 55 (scales from Denison, 1979). (G) ‘Rhadinacanthus’ Diplacanthus longispinus Agassiz scales with well-defined ribs and scalloped posterior margin; (H) Diplacanthus striatus Duff, scales with fine transverse grooves, (G) and (H) c. × 50 (courtesy of V.T. Young).

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Figure 6.13
Osteichthyan species from Cruaday Quarry. (A)–(C) The osteolepid Osteolepis macrolepidotus (Sedgwick and Murchison), restoration in lateral, dorsal and ventral views respectively; (D) Gyroptychius agassizi Traill, restoration in lateral view. (After Jarvik, 1948a.)

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Figure 6.14
The stratigraphical section in the brook at Edderton. The fish are confined to units 2, 3 and 4. (After Peach et al., 1912.)

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Figure 6.15
The Edderton ptyctodont Rhamphodopsis threiplandi Watson. (A) restoration of the skeleton in lateral view; (B) restoration of the skull in lateral view; (C) restoration of pectoral girdle in ventral view (after Miles, 1967).

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Figure 6.16
Correlation of the area Strathpeffer–Black Isle–Tarbat Ness, showing the central position of the Nodular Fish Beds and the Edderton Fish Beds (after Donovan, 1978).

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Figure 6.17
Den of Findon section (from Trewin and Kneller, 1987).

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Figure 6.18
Fishes from the Den of Findon. (A), (B) Cheirolepis trailli Agassiz, restorations of lateral and ventral views respectively (from Pearson and Westoll, 1979). (C)–(E), Coccosteus cuspidatus Agassiz: (C) restoration of the fish head in lateral view; (D) restoration of the head and trunk shields in dorsal view; (E) restoration of the skull in anterior view (after Miles and Westoll, 1968). (F) Cheirolepis trailli Agassiz, a more or less complete specimen in lateral view, T00382/A, × 0.75 (Photo: courtesy The Natural History Museum, London).

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Figure 6.19
Tynet Burn, map of the GCR site and section through the fish-bearing beds.

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Figure 6.20
Fossil fishes from Tynet Burn. (A) Cheriacanthus latus Egerton, a restoration based upon NHM P 15286 with scales from below and above the lateral line; (B) Cheiracanthus murchisoni Agassiz, a restoration based upon NHM P 6189 with scales from above and below the lateral line ((A) and (B) from Young, 1995); (C) T04134R of Cheiracanthus× 2 (Photo: courtesy The Natural History Museum, London); (E), (F) Reconstructions based on species from Tynet Burn: (E) skull roof with surface ornamentation and lateral line canal grooves; (F) in outline with radiation centres shown. (D) photograph GLAHM V3573, of Mesacanthus pusillus (Agassiz) × 2.5, specimens preserved in nodules.

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Figure 6.21
Stratal settings of the Melby Fish Beds (after Mykura and Phemister, 1976).

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Figure 6.22
Fishes from Melby: (A) dorsal view of the head and pectoral shield of the arthrodire Homosteus (after Moy-Thomas and Miles, 1971); (B) the osteichthyid Gyroptychius in dorsal and lateral view (after Jarvik, 1948a).

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Figure 6.23
Stratigraphical section through Dipple Brae Fish Bed (based on data from M.A. Rowlands MS).

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Figure 6.24
(A) The coccosteid arthrodire Dickosteus threiplandi Miles and Westoll; outline of the skull roof and cheek bones laid out in a single plane, based on the holotype RSM 1962.4, (after Miles and Westoll, 1963). (B) Cephalaspis magnifica Traquair, cephalic shield in ventral view at × 0.23.

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Figure 6.25
Sketch map of the geology of Holborn Head, near Thurso (after Hamilton and Trewin, 1994).

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Figure 6.26
Distribution and abundances of fossil fish in Holborn Head Quarry (after Hamilton and Trewin, 1988).

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Figure 6.27
The arthrodire Millerosteus minor (Miller). (A) Reconstruction in lateral view of the head and thoracic region of this species from the Mey and Ackergill Beds, Thurso Flagstone Group, of Caithness and Orkney (after Desmond, 1974); md, median dorsal plate; nu, nuchal plate; x, rostrum. (B) median dorsal plate, external aspect; (B') median dorsal plate, internal aspect. (C) Nuchal plate, external aspect.

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Figure 6.28
Locality map of the John o'Groats area (after Trewin and Hurst, 1993).

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Figure 6.29
Sketch map of the geology of south-east Shetland, including Exnaboe and Sumburgh Head (after Mykura, 1976).

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Figure 6.30
Fossil fish found at Exnaboe, Shetland. (A) Stegotrachelus finlayi Woodward and White, an early actinopterygian from Exnaboe; (B) Pentlandia macroptera Traquair, × 0.5; (C) Microbrachius dicki Traquair, reconstruction in dorsal view of the carapace of the smallest antiarch, based largely on RSM 1877.22.4 from John o’Groats and DMSW P 513 from Deerness; (D) Watsonosteus fletti (Watson) from Deerness (after Miles and Westoll, 1963); outline drawing of NHM P 11732 in dorsal view; avl, anterior ventro-lateral plate; pmv, posterior ventro-lateral plate; pvl, posterior ventro-lateral plate; r, rostrum.

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Figure 6.31
The antiarch Asterolepis thule Watson from Sumburgh Head, c. × 0.2. Reconstruction after Janvier (1996).

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