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Volume 19: British Silurian Stratigraphy — Chapter 03
 

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Chap 04
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Chap 05
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Chap 06
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Figure 3.1
Distribution of the Geological Conservation Review sites for the Llandovery Series, set against the palaeogeographical elements of Silurian Britain.

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Figure 3.2
Graptolite biozonation in the Llandovery Series of Britain, after Rickards (1976, 1989b), Loydell (1991, 1993), Loydell and Cave (1993, 1996) and Zalasiewicz (1994).

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Figure 3.3
Sedimentary log of representative open marine sandstones in the main face at Hope Quarry (after Bridges, 1975).

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Figure 3.4
Geological map of the area to the south-east of the Long Mynd, Shropshire, showing the sites at Hillend Farm and Wistanstow (modified after Siveter et al., 1989).

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Figure 3.5
Mudstones of the Pentamerus Beds at the road cutting near Hillend Farm; a thin limestone lens rich in Pentamerus shells is exposed above the hammer head (arrowed). (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.6
Representative sedimentary log through the mudstones and thin limestones of the Pentamerus Beds at Hillend Farm (after Bridges, 1975).

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Figure 3.7
Reconstruction of the Pentamerus benthic community, based on a collection from the Pentamerus Beds of Shropshire (after Ziegler et al., 1968a). The fossils represented are: (1) Pentamerus oblongus; (2) a bryozoan; (3) Eocoelia hemisphaerica; (4) Atrypa reticularis; (5) a rugose coral; (6) Halysites sp..

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Figure 3.8
The unconformity between Onny Shales of Caradoc age and the Hughley Shales of Llandovery age in the bank of the River Onny at Wistanstow; the Hughley Shales are exposed in the upper third of the river cliff, dipping at a lower angle than the Onny Shales. (Photo: R. J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.9
Outline geological map of the southern Malvern Hills, showing the location of Gullet Quarry (after Aldridge and Smith, 1985).

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Figure 3.10
The unconformable contact between the Malvernian metamorphosed igneous rocks (right) and the Telychian Wyche Formation at Gullet Quarry. (Photo: Derek J. Siveter.)

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Figure 3.11
The Wyche Formation at Gullet Quarry (Photo: Derek J. Siveter).

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Figure 3.12
Reconstruction of the Costistricklandia benthic community, based on a collection from Gullet Quarry (after Ziegler et al., 1968a). The fossils represented are: (1) Costistricklandia lirata alpha; (2) Pholidostrophia salopiensis; (3) Eospirifer radiatus; (4) Atrypa reticularis; (5) Clorinda globosa; (6) Protathyris sp.

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Figure 3.13
Representative conodont elements from Gullet Quarry. (a–c) Apsidognathus tuberculatus, platform, lenticular and lyriform elments, × 40; (d) Pterospathodus celloni, Pa element, × 40; (e) Icriodella inconstans, Pa element, × 50; (f) Ozarkodina gulletensis, Pa element, × 40. (Photos: from Aldridge, 1975.)

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Figure 3.14
Geological map of the Tortworth Inlier (after Curtis, 1972).

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Figure 3.15
Reconstruction of the Eocoelia benthic community, based on a collection from the Damery Formation 30 m south of Damery Bridge (after Ziegler et al., 1968a). The fossils represented are: (1) Eocoelia curtisi; (2) Ferganella aff. decemplicata; (3) Dalejina sp.; (4) a leptostrophiid brachiopod.

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Figure 3.16
Geological sketch-map and lithostratigraphy for Buttington Brickworks (modified after Loydell and Cave, 1993).

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Figure 3.17
The south-eastern part of the main (north-east) face at Buttington Brickworks, showing the upper part of the Buttington Mudstone Formation (to the left) and the lower part of the Trewern Brook Mudstone Formation. (Photo: Derek J. Siveter.)

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Figure 3.18
The geology of southern Pembrokeshire, showing the major structural blocks, the important faults, and the network localities at Gasworks Lane (Haverfordwest) and Marloes Sands; modified after Sanzen-Baker (1972).

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Figure 3.19
Geological map of Marloes Sands (after Walmsley and Bassett, 1976).

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Figure 3.20
The base of the Lower Marloes Basalt (to the right), within the Skomer Vocanic Group, Marloes Sands. (Photo: R. J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.21
Marloes Sands, with the Skomer Volcanic Group, including the Three Chimneys, to the left and the Coralliferous Group, dipping at a lower angle, to the right. (Photo: R. J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.22
Reconstruction of the depositional environment of interbedded sediments and volcanic rocks in the lower part of the Skomer Volcanic Group, Marloes (after Bridges, 1976).

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Figure 3.23
Geological map of the northern part of the type Llandovery area (after Cocks et al., 1984).

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Figure 3.24
Geological map of the southern part of the type Llandovery area (after Cocks et al., 1984).

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Figure 3.25
Exposures along and around the Trefawr Track, including the stratotype section for the base of the Aeronian Stage (modified after Cocks et al., 1984).

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Figure 3.26
Range chart of brachiopod and graptolite taxa across the Rhuddanian–Aeronian boundary in the Trefawr Track section (after Cocks et al., 1984).

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Figure 3.27
Exposures along and around the Fron Road, showing the stratotype locality for the base of the Telychian Stage (modified after Cocks et al., 1984).

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Figure 3.28
Stratotype section for the base of the Telychian Stage; the position of the Aeronian–Telychian boundary is within the bed with its base marked by the broken line. The section youngs to the left (south). (Photo: P.D. Lane.)

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Figure 3.29
Distribution of selected brachiopod and acritarch species across the Aeronian–Telychian boundary in the Fron Road section (after Cocks et al., 1984).

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Figure 3.30
Geological map of the Garth Bank area, Powys, showing the location of Cwm Clyd Quarry (after Williams and Wright, 1981).

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Figure 3.31
Geological sketch-map of the area around Caban Côch quarry (after Waters et al., 1993).

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Figure 3.32
Turbiditic sandstones and conglomeratic submarine channel fills, Caban Côch quarry. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.33
Detail of the conglomeratic infill of a submarine channel, Caban Côch quarry; the lower part of the conglomerate unit shows reverse grading. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.34
Depositional model for the development of nested channels and lobes in the Caban Côch area during the Llandovery Epoch (after Davies and Waters, 1995; Davies et al., 1997).

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Figure 3.35
Geological sketch map of the Banwy River section (after Loydell and Cave, 1996). The letters represent marker horizons from which measurements in metres are taken to graptolitic levels.

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Figure 3.36
Measured section through the Tarannon Shales Formation and the lower Nant-ysgollon Shales Formation in the Banwy River (after Loydell and Cave, 1996), showing the extent of identified graptolite biozones. The letters represent marker horizons from which measurements in metres are taken to graptolitic levels.

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Figure 3.37
Geological sketch-map of central western Wales, showing the extent of the Aberystwyth Grits Group and the GCR network sites at Aberarth and Craigyfulfran (Aberystwyth) (after Siveter et al., 1989).

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Figure 3.38
Deformed bedding in the Aberystwyth Grits Group (Subzone 4b) at Aberarth. (Photo: M.R. Dobson.)

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Figure 3.39
Representative measured section in the turbidite sequence, Aberystwyth Grits Group, between Aberarth and Morfa, with environmental interpretations (after Dobson et al., 1995a).

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Figure 3.40
Idealized graphic log of the full Tabcde Bouma turbidite cycle (modified from Selley, 1978, after Bouma, 1962).

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Figure 3.41
Sketch map of the area from Craigyfulfran to the north end of the Aberystwyth promenade (after Bates, 1982a).

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Figure 3.42
Turbidite units of the Aberystwyth Grits Group at the northern end of Aberystwyth promenade. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.43
Convolute lamination in a sandstone bed, Aberystwyth Grits Group, northern end of Aberystwyth promenade. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.44
Flute marks giving a palaeocurrent direction from the SSW, on the base of a 15 cm-thick sandstone unit, Aberystwyth Grits Group, northern end of Aberystwyth promenade. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.45
Trace fossils on the base of a sandstone unit, Aberystwyth Grits Group, northern end of Aberystwyth promenade. Width of frame, approximately 1 m. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.46
Representative sedimentary log of the turbidite Tcde rhythms measured at the headland at the north end of Aberystwyth promenade (after Dobson et al., 1995a).

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Figure 3.47
Geological map of the Rheidol Gorge (left) and detailed map of the area around the contact between the Cwmere and Derwenlas formations (right), showing the positions of graptolitic horizons (after Siveter et al., 1989).

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Figure 3.48
View of the Rheidol Gorge (Photo: Derek J. Siveter.)

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Figure 3.49
Outline geological map of the Lake District and Howgill Fells (modified after Rickards, 1989a).

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Figure 3.50
Geological sketch-map of Yewdale Beck showing the distribution of graptolite biozones (after Hutt, 1974).

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Figure 3.51
Measured sedimentary succession through the Skelgill Formation in Yewdale Beck, showing the graptolite biozonation (modified after Hutt, 1974).

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Figure 3.52
Reconstucted west–east sections across the Lake District, showing the development of the depositional environment during the early Llandovery (after Rickards, 1978).

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Figure 3.53
Geological map of the area around Skelghyll Lower Bridge, showing the main graptolitic horizons within the Skelgill Formation (after Hutt, 1974).

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Figure 3.54
Sedimentary log of the succession of the Skelgill Formation at Skelghyll Lower Bridge, showing the graptolite biozonation and the positions of the main graptolitic horizons (after Hutt, 1974).

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Figure 3.55
The Lower Bridge section, Skelghyll Beck. (Photo: R.B. Rickards.)

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Figure 3.56
The ‘green streak’ within the argenteus Biozone, Lower Bridge section, Skelghyll Beck. (Photo: R.B. Rickards.)

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Figure 3.57
Stratigraphical log and geological plan of the Browgill Formation in Stockdale Beck, showing the main graptolitic horizons (after Hutt, 1974).

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Figure 3.58
Plan of the Spengill section, showing the outcrops of the graptolite biozones represented in the Skelgill and Browgill formations (after Rickards, 1970a).

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Figure 3.59
Measured section through the Skelgill and Browgill formations in the Spengill section, showing the graptolite biozonation (modified after Rickards, 1970a).

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Figure 3.60
Spengill Member, Ordovician–Silurian boundary, Spengill, Howgill Fells. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.61
Exposure of the Browgill Formation in Spengill, Howgill Fells, showing strata of the turriculatus Biozone. (Photo: R.J. Aldridge.)

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Figure 3.62
Simplified geological map of Dob’s Linn, with a stratigraphical section; inset shows location relative to the A708 (after Williams, 1980).

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Figure 3.63
Section on the Main Cliff at Dob’s Linn, showing the Upper Hartfell Shale Formation and the Birkhill Shale Formation. The two geologists are standing approximately at the position of the Ordovician–Silurian boundary. (Photo: David J. Siveter.)

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Figure 3.64
Strata incorporating the internationally recognized base of the Silurian System, northern side of the Linn Branch gorge, Dob’s Linn. For scale see sketch opposite (Figure 3.65). The section youngs to the left and the Ordovician–Silurian boundary is arrowed between beds 1 and 2. (Photo: S.H. Williams.)

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Figure 3.65
Sketch of the geology of the northern side of Linn Branch gorge (after Williams, 1988).

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Figure 3.66
Section through the Birkhill Shale Formation at Dob’s Linn, showing the graptolite biozonation (after Toghill, 1968). The base of the Silurian System is at the base of the P. acuminatus Biozone.

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Figure 3.67
Some biostratigraphically important graptolite taxa from the Birkhill Shale Formation of Dob’s Linn (after Webb et al., 1993). (a) Glyptograptus persculptus; (b) Parakidograptus acuminatus; (c) Cystograptus vesiculosus; (d) Atavograptus atavus; (e) Coronograptus cyphus cyphus; (f) Coronograptus gregarius; (g) Monograptus triangulatus triangulatus; (h) Monograptus triangulatus fimbriatus; (i) Diplograptus magnus; (j) Pribylograptus leptotheca; (k) Monograptus argenteus; (l) Rhaphidograptus toernquisti; (m) Monograptus convolutus; (n) Monograptus sedgwickii; (o) Rastrites maximus. Figure (c) × 1.3, all other figures approximately × 2.

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Figure 3.68
Two models accounting for the structural and stratigraphical development seen in the Southern Uplands (from McAdam et al., 1992). (a) accretionary prism model of Leggett et al. (1979a); (b) back-arc basin model of Stone et al. (1987).

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Figure 3.69
The Gala Group in Grieston Quarry, Innerliethen. (Photo: TS1455, reproduced by kind permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC.)

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Figure 3.70
Fissile thin greywackes and shales of the Gala Group, Grieston Quarry, Innerliethen. (Photo: TS1457, reproduced by kind permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC.)

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Figure 3.71
The ichnospecies Dictyodora scotica from Thornylee Quarry (after Benton and Trewin, 1980). (a) irregular meanders; (b) plan view of basal burrow (stipple) and top wall (solid line); (c) regular meanders; (d) reconstruction of three-dimensional morphology showing basal burrow and wall; (e) block diagram to illustrate different preservational aspects of burrows in plan and in section. Arrows indicate direction of travel of burrowing animal.

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Figure 3.72
Geological map of the area around Siccar Point and Old Cambus Quarry (after Craig, 1986).

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Figure 3.73
Sketch-map of the geology at Woodland Point (after Cocks and Toghill, 1973).

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Figure 3.74
Geological map of the Craighead Inlier, showing the location of Roughneck Quarry (after Cocks and Toghill, 1973).

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Figure 3.75
Geological map of the Penwhapple Burn area, Main Outrcrop, Girvan (after Cocks and Toghill, 1973).

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Figure 3.76
Sedimentary log through the Lower Camregan Grits, Wood Burn Formation and Maxwellston Mudstones in Penwhapple Burn (after Cocks and Toghill, 1973).

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Figure 3.77
Purple mudstones of the Penkill Formation, Penwhapple Burn. (Photo: TS1493, reproduced by kind permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC.)

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Figure 3.78
Correlation of the Llandovery successions within the various outcrops in the Girvan area (modified after Cocks and Toghill, 1973).

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Figure 3.79
Geological map of the Blair–Knockgardner district, Girvan area (after Cocks and Toghill, 1973).

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Figure 3.80
Gutterford Burn, North Esk Inlier, showing patchy exposures of the Reservoir Formation. (Photo: E.N.K. Clarkson.)

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Figure 3.81
Measured section of the Reservoir Formation in Gutterford Burn (after Robertson, 1989). G = Gutterford Burn Limestone, E = Eurypterid Bed, S = Starfish beds.

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Figure 3.82
Location of the main Silurian inliers of the Midland Valley of Scotland (after Wellman and Richardson, 1993).

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Figure 3.83
???Wrong in the published book???

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Figure 3.84
Reconstruction of the agnathan Jamoytius kerwoodi White by Ritchie, 1968, showing terminal round mouth, elongate body scales, paired lateral fin lobes, single anal and dorsal fins and asymmetrical tail.

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Figure 3.85
The body profile of the agnathan thelodont Loganellia scotica (Traquair) and areas with scales of different morphology. Abbreviations: cp, cephalo-pectoral; l, lateral; o, orbital; p, pinnal; pc, precaudal; pp, postpectoral. Magnification × 1 (from Märss and Ritchie, 1998).

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Figure 3.86
Ainiktozoon loganense Scourfield. (a) interpreted as a possible chordate by Ritchie, 1985. (b) inverted and reinterpreted as a thylacocephalan arthropod by Brugghen et al. 1997 (drawing D. Palmer after Brugghen et al.).

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