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Volume 23: British Upper Cretaceous Stratigraphy — Chapter 01
 

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Chap 01
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Chap 02
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Chap 03
130 figures
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Chap 04
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Chap 05
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Chap 06
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Figure 1.1
Bedding in chalk picked out by flint bands. (a) Regular bedding in Maastrichtian chalk picked out by flint bands, overlain by irregularly bedded flint bands in the top section of the cliff (coral-bryozoan calcarenite bioherms; Danian, i.e. post-Cretaceous, in age), Stevens Klint, Denmark. (b) Irregular bedding in chalk picked out by flint bands and hardgrounds, overlain by regularly bedded flint bands in the top section of the cliff, Etretat, Haute Normandie, France. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 1.2
Cretaceous (D’Halloy, 1822) series and stages (Birkelund et al., 1984). Age picks (Ma = million years) based on Obradovitch (1993) and Gradstein et al. (1999). (Dates obtained using 40Ar/39Ar laser fusion on 50–500 µg samples of sanidine from bentonites (volcanic ash/marls) interbedded with precisely dated fossiliferous marine sediments.)

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Figure 1.3
The distribution of the continents and the oceans 100 million years ago at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous Epoch. (Based on Lambert equal-area Projection, N = 43, Alpha-95 = 5.2; of Smith and Briden, 1977, p. 57, map 46.) (* = Earth’s axis of rotation.)

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Figure 1.4
Late Cretaceous biogeographical provinces in Europe. (After Christensen, 1984, fig. 3, p. 315.)

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Figure 1.5
Zones of the Upper Cretaceous Chalk. (* = Gap in UKB scheme; ** = UKB zonal scheme modified for this book.)

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Figure 1.6
Depositional and faunal provinces in the Chalk of England.

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Figure 1.7
Upper Cretaceous GCR sites in the British Isles.

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Figure 1.8
Broad structural features affecting sedimentation of the Upper Cretaceous deposits in the British Isles. (Based on British Geological Survey 1:1 000 000 maps of the Geology of the UK, Ireland and Continental Shelf, North and South Sheets.)

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Figure 1.9
Some common nannoliths in chalk illustrating the variety of grain shapes constituting different chalks, as seen under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). (a) Rhabdoliths (R) and coccoliths (C) in the Newhaven Chalk Formation from Paulsgrove, Portsdown (magnification × 6000). (b) A soft, low density coccolithic chalk; Newhaven Chalk Formation from Arundel (BRESD9) (magnification × 2200). (c) A high density chalk from below the Brighton Marl, Seaford Head, Sussex; the blocky crystals are Micula, Newhaven Chalk Formation (magnification × 5500). (d) Nannoconus from Strahan’s Hardground, Lewes, Sussex, a very high density chalk (magnification × 13 100). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore, 1979.)

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Figure 1.10
Common components of chalk: calcispheres and foraminifera under SEM. (a) Calcisphere-rich, high density, nodular chalk (HG3) with Lewes Tubular Flints, South Portal, Lewes Tunnel (magnification × 205). (b) Oval-shaped Pithonella from a high-density hardground in the Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation, Lewes Tunnel, BH1, depth 24.2 m (magnification × 1050). (c) Foraminifera-rich (multi-chambered) coccolithic chalk, Grimes Graves Pit 15, Norfolk (magnification × 1100). (d) Calcisphaerula from a high-density nodular bed in the Lewes Chalk, Lewes Tunnel, BH1, depth 21.6 m (magnification × 1160). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore, 1979.)

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Figure 1.11
Marl seams in the Chalk. (a) Marl seam (arrowed) in Newhaven Chalk Formation, Newhaven, Sussex, showing cavities developed on a former perched water table. The coin is about 25 mm in diameter. (b) Flaser marl seams (arrowed) forming a pair, New Pit Chalk Formation, Beachy Head, Sussex. The hammer is 130 mm long. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 1.12
Correlation of key marker marl seams and tephro-events in Europe.

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Figure 1.13
Types of nodular and sheet-flint in chalk. (a) Semi-tabular flint bands (arrowed) above the Lewes Marl, with broad horizons of scattered nodular/tubular flints (Lewes Tubular Flints) below, beside the figures. (b) Sheet-flint forming in slip scars (arrowed), Newhaven Chalk Formation, Newhaven. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 1.14
Paramoudra flints. (a) Giant flint in the Sidestrand Western Mass, north Norfolk coast. The hammer is 320 mm long. (b) Paramoudra with internal, hardened chalk core, foreshore at Dumpton Gap, Thanet Coast, Kent. The pencil is 160 mm long. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Table 1.1
Mapping units and formal and informal lithostratigraphical terms. Key references for the Chalk of each Province are shown.

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Figure 1.15
Simplified structural map showing the main features affecting sedimentation of the Upper Cretaceous deposits of England.

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Figure 1.16
Schematic diagram showing the comparison between the Northern Province and Southern Province chalk stratigraphies.

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Figure 1.17
Schematic and simplified stratigraphy of the Chalk and related carbonates in north-west Europe.

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