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Volume 23: British Upper Cretaceous Stratigraphy — Chapter 02
 

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Figure 2.1
(a) Large ammonite (Parapuzosia) in the Lower Campanian Newhaven Chalk Formation (Meeching Beds), on the foreshore at Portobello, Sussex. The enlargement (b) shows the septal sutures. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 2.2
Rhythms in the Chalk picked out by marl–limestone alternations at Beachy Head. (a) Mid-Cenomanian marl–limestone couplets and the litho-change above the mid-Cenomanian break. (b) Basal Chalk (Lower Cenomanian) couplets comprise thicker marl bands compared with the Middle Cenomanian couplets above. (CT = change in limestone-marl thickness with increase in carbonate upwards; MCB = mid-Cenomanian Break; UOMB = hard limestones with sponges and heteromorph ammonites (upper Orbirhynchia mantelliana band). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 2.3
Integration of trace fossil events with shape and size changes in some key benthic fossils, and the magnetostratigraphy for the Upper Cretaceous succession in southern England. See Figure 1.5, Chapter 1, for full details of zonal fossils.

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Figure 2.4
Lower and Middle Cenomanian ammonites. (A) Mantelliceras mantelli (from Sharpe, 1853–1857). (B1–3) Schloenbachia varians (three different forms from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 8). (C) A classic fake combining two fossils; (C1) Hypoturrilites gravesianus (from Mantell, 1822, pl. 26, fig. 7); (C2) Hypoturrilites tuberculatus (from Mantell, 1822, pl. 26, fig. 7). (D) Neostlingoceras carcitanense (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 26, figs 7a, 8). (E) Turrilites acutus (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 27). (F) Turrilites costatus (from Sharpe 1853–1857, pl. 27). (G) Turrilites scheuchzerianus (from Sharpe 1853–1857, pl. 26). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.5
Lower and Middle Cenomanian ammonites. (A) Mantelliceras cantianum (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 18). (B1, B2) Sharpeiceras schlueteri (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 14) from the Lower Cenomanian S. schlueteri Zone. (C) Cunningtoniceras inerme at the base of the Middle Cenomanian, West Melbury Marly Chalk Formation at Beachy Head, Sussex (the pencil is 150 mm long). (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.) Scale bar applies to A and B.

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Figure 2.6
Middle Cenomanian ammonites. (A) Acanthoceras rhotomagense (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 16). (B) Parapuzosia (Austiniceras) austeni (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 12).

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Figure 2.7
Upper Cenomanian and Lower Turonian ammonites. (A) Metoicoceras geslinianum (from the Plenus Marls Member, Ballard Down, Dorset; from Mortimore Collection). (B) Mammites nodosoides (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 15), typical of the higher part of the Holywell Nodular Chalk Formation. (C) Metasigaloceras rusticum (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 20) from the higher part of the Holywell Nodular Chalk Formation.

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Figure 2.8
Cenomanian stratigraphy for the onshore UK based on Southerham, Asham, Beachy Head and Folkestone. M2, M4 and M5 are Marker Beds of Gale (1995).

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Figure 2.9
Turonian stratigraphy for the onshore UK based on Lewes Pits and Beachy Head, Southern Province. V = marl derived from volcanic ash. (* = The inoceramid zones used are transferred from the current scheme used in Northern Europe and are under review.)

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Figure 2.10
Middle and Upper Turonian ammonites. (A) Collignoniceras woollgari (from Mantell, 1822, Tab. 21, fig. 16). (B) Collignoniceras woollgari (from Sharpe 1853–1857, pl. 11), typical of the New Pit Chalk Formation. (C) Lewesiceras mantelli (from Sharpe, 1853–1857, pl. 10) from the topmost Chalk Rock and above the Lewes Marl. (D) Romaniceras deverianum (from Sharpe 1853–1857, pl. 19), typical between the Glynde Marl and Caburn Marl, basal Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation.

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Figure 2.11
Upper Turonian mollusca of the Chalk Rock (from Woods, 1896; see also Wright, 1979). (A, B, D) Subprionocyclus neptuni. (C) Subprionocyclus branneri. (E, F, G) Scaphites geinitzii. (H, I, J) Allocrioceras angustum. (K, L) Turcica? schlueteri. (M, N) Bathrotomaria perspectiva. (O, P) Metaptychoceras smithi. (Q, R, S) Hyphantoceras reussianum. (T, U, V) Eubostrychoceras saxonicum. (W, X) Sciponoceras bohemicum.

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Figure 2.12
Comparison between the ranges of Cenomanian belemnites on the Russian Platform and in north-west Europe. (After Christensen, 1990.)

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Figure 2.13
Comparison of Upper Cretaceous belemnite zones across Europe, which are only partly represented in the UK and mainly on the Anglo-Brabant Massif. (After Christensen, 1991.) (A. = Actinocamax; B. = Belemnella; Bt. = Belemnitella; Bx. = Belemnellocamax; G. = Gonioteuthis; Gx. = Goniocamax; N. = Neohibolites; P. = Praeactinocamax.)

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Figure 2.14
Cenomanian inoceramid bivalves. (A, B) Holotype of Actinoceramus tenuis (from Woods, 1911, text-fig. 31). (C) Inoceramus crippsi (from Woods, 1911, text-fig. 34). (D) Inoceramus atlanticus (from Woods, 1911, pl. 48, fig. 5). (E) Inoceramus virgatus scalprum (from Woods, 1911, pl. 49, fig. 3a) typical of the Lower Cenomanian ‘Bank’ of limestones. (F) Inoceramus pictus (from Woods, 1911, pl. 49, fig. 5) typical of the Plenus Marls Member and the basal few metres of the Melbourn Rock, Upper Cenomanian. (G) Inoceramus atlanticus (from Woods, 1911, pl. 49, fig. 1), typical of the Middle Cenomanian ‘atlanticus’ flood. Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.15
Lower Turonian inoceramid bivalves. (A–C) Mytiloides mytiloides; (A) left valve (from Seitz, 1934, pl. 36) typical of the Holywell Nodular Chalk; (B) right valve (from Seitz, 1934, text-fig. 2c) from a sandstone steinkern; (C) the type from Woods, 1911, text-fig. 37. (D, E) Mytiloides hattini (from Elder, 1991); (E) is the holotype. (F, G) Mytiloides puebloensis (formerly M. opalensis and/or M. columbianus of authors); (F) (Elder, 1991, fig. 4.9) is a typical example; (G) (Elder, 1991, fig. 4.2) shows features transitional to M. kossmati (doubling of concentric rugae). (H, I) Mytiloides labiatus; (H) from Seitz, 1934, pl. 38, this is closest to the missing type; (I) from a sandstone steinkern (from Seitz, 1934, fig. 9a). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.16
Middle Turonian inoceramid bivalves. (A, B) Mytiloides subhercynicus, typical of the lowest New Pit Chalk (from Seitz, 1934, pl. 40). (C) Inoceramus apicalis (lectotype, from Woods, 1912, pl. 53, fig. 4a), Holywell Nodular Chalk, Hitchin. (D, E) Inoceramus cuvieri; (D) typical of cuvieri (from Woods, 1912, pl. 53, fig. 7), New Pit Chalk, Royston; (E) the holotype of cuvieri (from Woods, 1912, holotype, text-fig. 73), New Pit Chalk, Royston. (F, G) Inoceramus lamarcki; (F) the holotype of lamarcki from the Glynde Marls–Southerham Marls interval, Dover (Woods, 1912, text-fig. 63); (G) form typical of mid-New Pit Chalk around Lewes (Woods, 1912, text-fig. 69). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.17
Upper Turonian inoceramid bivalves. (A) Inoceramus lamarcki stuemkei, typical between Caburn and Bridgewick marls, (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 82). (B) Inoceramus websteri sensu Woods non Mantell, typical of the beds above the Lewes Marl (from Woods, 1912, pl. 53, fig. 1). (C) Mytiloides costellatus sensu stricto (from Woods, 1912, pl. 54, fig. 5). (D) Mytiloides labiatoidiformis, typical of the Lewes Marl and the beds above (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 1, fig. 8). (E, F) Mytiloides incertus (from Noda, 1984). (G) Mytiloides striatoconcentricus, typical of the Kingston Nodular Beds, (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 1, fig. 11). Large scale bar applies to A, E; small scale bar applies to B, C, D, F and G.

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Figure 2.18
Upper Turonian and Lower Coniacian inoceramid bivalves. (A–E) Cremnoceramus crassus inconstans; (A, B) the lectotype, the original of Inoceramus sp., Mantell, 1822 (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 42); (C–E) from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 43. (F) Inoceramus lusatiae, holotype: typical of the Navigation Hardgrounds (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 2, fig. 4). (G, H) Mytiloides herbichi, probably typical of the beds around the Cuilfail Zoophycos (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 1, fig. 5). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.19
Topmost Turonian and basal Coniacian inoceramid bivalves. (A, B) Cremnoceramus deformis erectus typical of beds just above the Navigation Hardgrounds and the larger forms from the Hope Gap Hardground (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 7, figs 7, 8). (C, D) Cremnoceramus deformis erectus, typical of Navigation Marls, (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 7, figs 1, 2). (E–G) Cremnoceramus waltersdorfensis waltersdorfensi; (E) typical of the Southern Province (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 15, fig. 2); (F) typical of beds below the Navigation hardgrounds (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 17, fig. 3); (G) typical of beds between Navigation and Cliffe hardgrounds in the Southern Province (from Woods, 1912, pl. 52, fig. 1). (H) Cremnoceramus waltersdorfensis hannovrensis typical of beds between Cliffe and Hope Gap hardgrounds (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 11, fig. 2). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.20
Lower and Middle Coniacian inoceramid bivalves. (A) Cremnoceramus crassus crassus typical of Beeding to Light Point beds, Lewes Nodular Chalk (from Walaszczyk and Wood, 1999b, pl. 17, fig. 2). (B) Fragments of Platyceramus sp. shell typical of the Belle Tout Beds, Seaford Chalk Formation (from De Mercy, 1877). (C–E) Volviceramus aff. involutus; (C, D) typical of Belle Tout Beds, Seaford Chalk Formation (from Woods, 1912, text-figs 93, 90); (E) typical cap valve in Belle Tout Beds, Seaford Chalk Formation, common 1.8–2 m below the Seven Sisters Flint Band (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 94). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.21
Coniacian stratigraphy for the onshore UK based on the Southern Province sections at Lewes, Beachy Head, Seaford Head and Dover. (* = informal zones applied in this book; V = vulcanogenic marl.)

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Figure 2.22
Santonian stratigraphy for the onshore UK based on the Southern Province sections at Lewes, Beachy Head, Seaford Head and Dover. (* = informal zones applied in this book.)

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Figure 2.23
Lower Santonian inoceramid bivalves. (A–E) Cordiceramus cordiformis; (A, B) Seaford Chalk Formation, Gravesend, Kent (holotype from Woods, 1912, pl. 53, figs 8a,b); (C–E) from the Seaford Chalk Formation, Micheldever, Hants (from Woods, 1912, pl. 54, figs 3a,b, 4). (F–I) Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus; (F, G) typical of the basal Santonian including Bedwell’s Columnar Flint Band (from Woods, 1912, text-figs 60, 61), from Haldon, Devon; (H, I) typical of the basal Santonian (from Seitz, 1961). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.24
Santonian and Campanian inoceramid bivalves. (A) Sphenoceramus pinniformis (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 96), probably Santonian crinoid zones, from Brighton. (B) Sphenoceramus tuberculatus (from Woods, 1912, text-fig 59), Flamborough Chalk Formation (Sphenoceramus lingua Zone), Sewerby.

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Figure 2.25
Lower Santonian and Lower Campanian inoceramid bivalves. (A) Sphenoceramus pachti (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 57), Northern Province, Yorkshire coast, Santonian Micraster coranguinum Zone. (B, C) Sphenoceramus pachti pachti (from Seitz, 1965). (D, E) Sphenoceramus lingua; (D) typical of the upper Flamborough Chalk Formation, Lower Campanian, Northern Province (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 54); (E) typical of the upper Flamborough Chalk Formation, Lower Campanian (from Seitz, 1965). (F) Sphenoceramus patootensiformis typical of the Lower Campanian, Northern Province (from Seitz, 1965). Scale bar applies to all specimens.

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Figure 2.26
Campanian inoceramid bivalves. (A, B) Inoceramus balticus pteroides (name is uncertain) typical of the top Old Nore Beds and the Peacehaven and Meeching Beds, Newhaven Chalk (Offaster pilula Zone, lower belt) (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 51). (C, D) Cordiceramus? sp. (co-occurs with Sphaeroceramus sarumensis in the Hagenowia blackmorei Subzone at East and West Harnham, Salisbury (from Woods, 1912, pl. 51, figs 3a,b). (E, F) Sphaeroceramus sarumensis; (F) from the Newhaven Chalk Formation, Hagenowia blackmorei Subzone, at East and West Harnham, Salisbury (from Woods, 1912, pl. 52, figs 2a,b). Large scale bar applies to A, B; small scale bar applies to C–F.

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Figure 2.27
Campanian stratigraphy for the onshore UK based on the Southern Province sections at Seaford Head, Portsdown and the Isle of Wight. (* = informal zones applied in this book.)

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Figure 2.28
Key Upper Cretaceous Chalk oysters. (A) Agerostrea lunata, Lower Maastrichtian, Norfolk (from Woods, 1912, pl. 61, figs 1–5). (B1, B2) Pseudoperna boucheroni from the Santonian–Campanian boundary ‘Grobkreide’ facies (from Woods, 1912, pl. 60, figs 1–3). (C) Pycnodonte from the Cenomanian Pycnodonte event (Woods, 1912, pl. 55, figs 8, 9). (D) Rastellum colubrinum, Lower Cenomanian Sharpeiceras schlueteri Subzone (from Woods, 1912, text-fig. 122). All specimens natural size.

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Figure 2.29
Stratigraphy and possible phylogeny of Micraster in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk, plotted against English stratigraphical markers. (After Ernst, 1972, fig. 25.)

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Figure 2.30
Stratigraphy and possible phylogeny of Infulaster and Hagenowia in the Boreal Upper Cretaceous succession. (After Smith, 1984; Ernst, 1972, fig. 22.)

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Figure 2.31
Irregular echinoid phylogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk. (After Ernst, 1972.)

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Figure 2.32
Stratigraphy and possible phylogeny of Holasteroidea in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk; note the revised interpretation in Figure 2.30. (After Ernst, 1972, fig. 20.)

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Figure 2.33
Stratigraphy and possible phylogeny of Offaster and Galeola in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk. (After Ernst, 1972, fig. 21.)

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Figure 2.34
Mode of life of Infulaster excentricus (S. Woodward) and Hagenowia blackmorei Wright and Wright indicating possible depth in the sediment of each species in relation to the development of their different apical elongations (from Gale and Smith, 1982, after Ernst, 1972). Their modes of life can be contrasted with the probable shallower ‘ploughing’ of Micraster.

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Figure 2.35
Branching Thalassinoides burrow-replacement flints. (From Bromley and Ekdale, 1984a.)

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Figure 2.36
Ecology of a soft chalk seabed: trace fossils in flint. (a) A spiral Zoophycos typical of many horizons such as the Tavern Flints, Portobello and Précy Zoophycos. (b) Silicified lateral lobes with lamellae of a Zoophycos spreite. This type of preservation is typical of the Cuilfail and Beachy Head Zoophycos beds. (c) A lobe of a Zoophycos burrow with preservation style typical of the Asham Zoophycos at Southerham Pit, Lewes and the Sub-Plenus Zoophycos of the Northern Province. (d) Four tiers of a Zoophycos system within a Thalassinoides burrow. This style of preservation is typical of many horizons including the bands of Zoophycos in the Scottish Chalk at Gribun, Mull. (From Bromley and Ekdale, 1984a.)

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Figure 2.37
A typical ‘Chondrites’ flint showing a branching Chondrites network in a Thalassinoides suevicus network. (From Bromley and Ekdale, 1984a.)

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Figure 2.38
Bathichnus paramoudrae in various forms. (a) A vertical cylinder of flint (Paramoudra) at Caistor St Edmunds Chalk Pit, Norwich. (b) Dark pyritic aureole around the trace fossil (vertical section). (c) Horizontal section of (b). (From Bromley et al., 1975.)

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Figure 2.39
Reconstruction of a Zoophycos trace fossil from a spiral fabric in a flint. (From Bromley and Ekdale, 1984a.)

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Figure 2.40
Cenomanian and Turonian foraminifera (see page 77 for details).

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Figure 2.41
Turonian and Coniacian foraminifera (see page 77 for details).

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Figure 2.42
Santonian foraminifera (see page 77 for details).

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Figure 2.43
Campanian foraminifera (see page 77 for details).

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Figure 2.44
Campanian and Maastrichtian foraminifera (see page 77 for details).

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Figure 2.45
Adaptations to a chalky seabed. (a) The shell of Cremnoceramus crassus in the Lower Coniacian Lewes Chalk at Seaford Head is a ‘hard-surface’ and home to the boring Entobia cretacea (from Ekdale and Bromley, 1984). (b) The bivalve Spondylus spinosus has developed spines whose purpose is uncertain (from Mantell, 1822).

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Figure 2.46
(a) Ecology of a soft chalk seabed: an unlithified omission surface with a greyer chalk overlying and filling the underlying whiter bed. The pre-omission suite of burrows is barely visible, the omission suite of trace fossils are pale grey, and the post-omission suite is dark grey (from Bromley, 1975a). (b) Complex trace fossil fabric (ichnofabric) of a soft chalk with successive cross-cutting burrows including two stages of Planolites, Thalassinoides, Zoophycos and Chondrites (from Ekdale and Bromley, 1984).

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Figure 2.47
Ecology of a hard chalk seabed: burrows and borings in hardgrounds. (a) Hardgrounds from the Chalk Rock at Charnage Chalk Pit, Mere, Wiltshire, showing the difference between a convoluted and a flat surface. (b) Hardground with a convoluted surface of irregular bosses between Thalassinoides burrow systems. (From Bromley, 1975a.)

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Figure 2.48
Correlation of strontium and manganese and major ecological events 1–4 in the Campanian Chalk of the Anglo-Paris Basin. (Based on field sections of Mortimore and Pomerol, 1987; and geochemistry of Barchi, 1995.)

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Figure 2.49
Correlation of manganese curves for the Campanian Chalk in the Southern Province and Paris Basin indicating the key event close to the Newhaven Chalk Formation–Culver Chalk Formation boundary, the conspicuous Précy Hardground ‘spike’, and the marked shift at the base of the Portsdown Chalk. S/g to S/i are standard French benthic foraminiferal zones. The third column refers to nannofossil zones. (CHFB7 = Castle Hill Flint (Band) 7; M. t. = Marsupites; E. s. = Echinocorys scitula; U. a. = Uintacrinus anglicus). (Based on field sections of Mortimore and Pomerol, 1987; and geochemistry of Barchi, 1995).

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