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Volume 23: British Upper Cretaceous Stratigraphy — Chapter 03
 

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Figure 3.1
Southern Province GCR localities in relation to the Upper Cretaceous outcrop and major tectonic lineaments. For south-east Devon GCR sites, see also Figure 3.19, p. 109.

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Figure 3.2
Long narrow rib of the Chalk Downs along the Dorset coast east of Lulworth. (Photo: Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photography; copyright reserved.)

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Figure 3.3
Unified stratigraphy for the Upper Cretaceous successions of the Southern Province. (JB = Jukes-Browne bed numbers.) (Based on Bristow et al., 1997.)

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Figure 3.4
Schematic relationship between the Cenomanian deposits of the thicker successions in Sussex and Kent and the condensed Cenomanian Limestone (A, B, C). Because of tectonics the age of the Chalk Basement Bed is different in different places.

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Figure 3.5
Southerham Grey Pit, Lewes, Sussex, showing the transition from West Melbury Marly Chalk rhythms below to Zig Zag Chalk above. AZB = Asham Zoophycos Beds; GPC = Grey Pit Channel; JB7 = Jukes-Browne Bed 7; TL = Tenuis Limestone forming the mapping base of the Zig Zag Chalk Formation; TM = Triple Marls and the Inoceramus atlanticus event; WMMCF = West Melbury Marly Chalk Formation. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.6
(a, b) Grey Chalk Subgroup and White Chalk Subgroup boundary at the base of the Plenus Marls at Beachy Head, Sussex. (Beds 1–8 are those of Jefferies, 1963.) (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.7
Part of the Chalk cliffs at Dover above Athol Terrace exposing the entire Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation and the basal Seaford Chalk Formation. (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.8
The bottom sections of Langdon Stairs, Dover, exposing the ‘Basal Complex’. BWM = Bridgewick Marls; BWF = Bridgewick Flints; BPF = Bopeep Flints; CM = Caburn Marl; DCR = Dover Chalk Rock. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.9
(a, b) Basin-wide marker beds in the Upper Turonian part of the Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation present in the Hooken succession at Hooken Cliff. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.10
Chalk adjacent to St Margaret’s Bay, Dover. (a) South side of St Margaret’s Bay beyond the South Foreland, showing the Cuilfail Zoophycos in the topmost Turonian strata. (b) North side of St Margaret’s Bay, showing the topmost Lewes Nodular Chalk and basal Seaford Chalk formations. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.11
Hooken Cliff and the Twin Pillars at Beer Head; pinnacles of Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation exposing the succession from below the Annis’ Knob Flint, through the Lewes Marl and Navigation Marl to a horizon around the Hope Gap Hardground equivalent. The first sheet-flints were used by Rowe (1903) for correlation. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.12
Whitecliff, Isle of Wight, showing the Seaford Chalk, Newhaven Chalk, Culver Chalk and Portsdown Chalk formations. The Bedhampton Marls and Farlington Marls both contain abundant inoceramid bivalve shell debris. This is the type section for the Culver Chalk Formation. Note the marly units stand out as bluffs even in the Culver Chalk Formation, which can be recognized as the unit between the top Newhaven marls and basal Portsdown marls. Compare with Figure 3.65, p.188. (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.13
The Culver Chalk Formation at Whitecliff, Isle of Wight. (a) The basal part of the formation. (b) The central part of the formation, the boundary between the Tarrant Member below and the Spetisbury Member above is taken at the Whitecliff Marls. (CBF = Cote’s Bottom Flint; CDF= Charmandean Flint; LB = Laminated beds; LM1, LM2 = Lancing Marls 1 and 2; PM = Pepperbox Marls at top of Newhaven Chalk Formation; SM1, SM2, SM3 = Solent Marls 1, 2 and 3; WM = Whitecliff Marls.) (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.14
The upper part of the Culver Chalk Formation, Whitecliffe, Isle of Wight (Spetisbury Member) containing numerous Paramoudra flints. (LPM = Lower Portsdown Marls; WF = Whitecliffe Flint; WFPF = Warren Farm Paramoudra Flints; YM1, YM2, YM3 = Yaverland Marls 1, 2 and 3.) (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.15
(a) Large Paramoudra flints (P) from the Warren Farm Paramoudra horizon, Whitecliff, Isle of Wight. (b) Large Paramoudra flint fallen to the beach, Whitecliff, Isle of Wight. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.16
Beer Head at the east end of the Hooken Cliff site, south-east Devon, showing the base of the Upper Cretaceous strata resting on the Albian Upper Greensand. Note the bedding dip of 4º to the south-east and the joint pattern along which caves have formed. (B1 = Boundary between Albian (Lower Cretaceous) and Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous); ‘BB’ = ‘Belay Buttress’; BKC = base of Karst collapse; GM = Glynde Marl (Dowlands Marl and base of Lewes Nodular Chalk); R4ft = Rowe’s 4-ft band.) (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.17
The Hooken Cliff GCR site in relation to nearby sections and the local geology.

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Figure 3.18
(a) Beer Head looking west; the west end of the Hooken Cliff GCR site shows the overstep of Chalk onto Upper Greensand. (b) Hooken Landslip looking north-west. The Twin Pillars are composed of Annis’ Knob Flint, Lewes Flint, Lewes Marl, Cuilfail Zoophycos and Navigation Marl; the Landslip displays the stratigraphically highest chalk on the Devon coast with Platyceramus/Volviceramus and the Seven Sisters Flint Band. (AK/BBF = Annis’ Knob/Breaky Bottom Flint; BWF and BPF = Bridgewick Flints and Bopeep Flints; R2ft = Rowe’s 2-ft band; R4ft = Rowe’s 4-ft band; TNP = Turonian New Pit Chalk section in landslip with abundant spiky flints.) (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.19
Geological sketch map and section showing the position of the Upper Cretaceous GCR sites in relation to outcrop and structure.

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Figure 3.20
The Hooken Cliff GCR site, detailed locality map.

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Figure 3.21
Schematic and simplified view of lateral variation in the Cenomanian and Early Turonian deposits of Hooken Cliffs and adjacent areas. The datum is the West Ebb Marl.

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Figure 3.22
Overstep of the Upper Cretaceous Chalk (New Pit Chalk Formation) onto the Albian Upper Greensand. Lateral variation shows the Beer Stone as a lensoid sedimentary body within the Hooken–Wilmington Trough and the complete loss of the Holywell Chalk and lower New Pit Chalk traced westwards within the Hooken Cliff GCR site.

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Figure 3.23
(a, b) Beer Head Limestone Formation (Cenomanian Limestone), Grey Chalk Subgroup, and overlying base of the Holywell Nodular Chalk Formation (HNCF) and White Chalk Subgroup at Beer Head, Hooken Cliff, south-east Devon. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.24
Two sections west of Beer Head, Hooken Cliff, south-east Devon, showing the entire undisturbed Upper Cretaceous succession exposed in the south-east Devon faulted outliers. (a) West side of Beer Head above Little Beach. (b) Section on ‘Belay Bluff’ above Beer Head. (AKF = Annis’ Knob Flint (Rowe’s ‘strong nodular flint line’); BHLF = Beer Head Limestone Formation; BPF and BWF = Bopeep Flints and Bridgewick Flints; HNCF= Holywell Nodular Chalk Formation; NM = Navigation Marl, (Rowe’s ‘marl in M.c.t.’); NP1, NP2= New Pit Marls 1 and 2; SF = sheet-flint (Rowe’s ‘Tabular at Base M.c.t.’).) (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.25
Geological setting of Wilmington Quarry, Reeds Farm Pit and adjacent sections, south-east Devon.

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Figure 3.26
The Cretaceous succession at Wilmington Quarry, south-east Devon.

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Table 3.1
Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous at Wilmington Quarry.

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Figure 3.27
Lateral variations in the Cenomanian Limestone equivalent (see Table 3.1) in the Wilmington Quarry GCR site (White Hart Sandpit) illustrating the reason for the near absence of Bed B in parts of the exposure.

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Figure 3.28
The former section at Reeds Farm Pit, Wilmington, south-east Devon (also known as ‘Hutchins Pit’ or ‘Haynes Lane Pit’).

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Figure 3.29
Sketch of Reeds Farm Pit, Wilmington, south-east Devon. (From Jukes-Browne and Hill 1903, fig. 31, p. 127.)

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Figure 3.30
The geological setting of the Furley Chalk Pit GCR Site.

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Figure 3.31
Furley Chalk Pit, south-east Devon, showing an unusual development of Chalk without hardgrounds and only one flint band in contrast to all other known localities at this horizon in Devon, more like a Sussex succession. (Based on Kennedy, 1970, fig. 14; and Hart 1975, fig. 2.)

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Figure 3.32
Snowdon Hill Quarry, Chard, Somerset. The most important Chalk Basement Bed assemblage of fossils in south-west England.

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Figure 3.33
Snowdon Hill Quarry, Chard, Somerset, as seen in 1892 (UGS = Upper Greensand). (From Jukes-Browne and Hill, 1903, fig. 28, p. 118.)

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Figure 3.34
Location of Shillingstone Quarry and Track Sections, other sites mentioned in the text in the Blandford Forum area, Dorset.

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Figure 3.35
The succession of Upper Cretaceous Chalk at Shillingstone Quarry, Dorset. (After Mortimore and Pomerol, 1987; and Bristow et al., 1995.)

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Figure 3.36
Schematic section showing the position of Shillingstone close to the sedimentary hinge line where facies and thickness changes occur in the Albian–Cenomanian interval across the Mid-Dorset Swell. The effects of this hinge line continue into Late Cenomanian and Turonian times. (After Drummond, 1967, 1970; and Bristow et al., 1995.)

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Figure 3.37
Highest Cenomanian and Turonian successions at Shillingstone Quarry (Dorset) compared with Beggars Knoll (Westbury, Wilts), 40 km to the north.

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Figure 3.38
Position of Dead Maid Quarry and Charnage Down Chalk Pit, Mere, Wiltshire.

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Figure 3.39
The position of Dead Maid Quarry and Charnage Down Chalk Pit in relation to the Mere Fault and other key localities in the area. (After Scanes, 1916.)

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Figure 3.40
Dead Maid Quarry, Wiltshire. (Reproduced from Jukes-Browne and Scanes, 1901. The vertical line ‘A–B’ indicates where their section was taken.)

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Figure 3.41
The succession of Chalk at Charnage Down Chalk Pit, Mere, Wiltshire, showing lateral variation along section.

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Figure 3.42
Correlation of the Chalk Rock stratigraphy from its type locality to Charnage Down Chalk Pit and nearby localities, illustrating the condensation present at Charnage Down. (After Bromley and Gale, 1982.)

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Figure 3.43
The position of West Harnham Chalk Pit on the south-western outskirts of Salisbury and correlative sections at East Grimstead Quarry, Dean Hill and Pepperbox Quarry, Wiltshire.

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Figure 3.44
West Harnham Chalk Pit, Salisbury. (a) Looking north-east over Salisbury Cathedral. (b) Looking south-east on to the highest beds. (CH = upper face exposes Castle Hill and Pepperbox Marls and Castle Hill Flints, with the change from large to small forms of Echinocorys (Gaster, 1924); MM = Meeching Marls and Echinocorys scutata cincta beds in lowest exposures; TBRM = Access track to upper quarry exposing Telscombe and Black Rabbit marls; TM = Telscombe Marls and abundant Offaster pilula planatus beds.) (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.45
Chalk at West Harnham Chalk Pit compared with East Grimstead Quarry.

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Figure 3.46
The White Nothe GCR site in relation to other key Late Cretaceous sections on the adjacent Dorset Coast.

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Figure 3.47
Map of the White Nothe GCR site, see also Figure 3.48.

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Figure 3.48
White Nothe, Dorset, landslipped masses of Chalk and the zig-zag path from the old coastguard lookout (White Nothe Cottages) through the landslipped masses. (Photo: Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photography: copyright reserved).

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Figure 3.49
White Nothe showing the zones of the Chalk in relation to the old coastguard lookout (CG = White Nothe Cottages on Figure 3.48) and the zig-zag path. (After Rowe, 1901, fig. 1.)

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Figure 3.50
Looking east from White Nothe across Middle Bottom to Bats Head. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.51
Upper Greensand/Chalk contact and the Zig Zag Chalk succession exposed at the base of White Nothe cliffs, Dorset, in the landslipped masses.

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Figure 3.52
Part of the Chalk succession exposed at White Nothe, Dorset, in the slipped masses and in the cliff.

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Figure 3.53
The Handfast Point to Ballard Point Upper Cretaceous GCR site, Swanage, Dorset.

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Figure 3.54
The two ends of the Handfast Point to Ballard Point GCR site. (a) The southern end at Ballard Head, looking south-west. (b) The northern end at Handfast Point – Handfast Point and Old Harry sea stack looking south-west. (Photos: Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photography; copyright reserved.)

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Figure 3.55
Cliff section from Ballard Point to Handfast Point, Isle of Purbeck, Dorset. (After Rowe, 1901, fig. 2.)

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Figure 3.56
Chalk stratigraphy and the major thrust fault in the Chalk at Ballard Point, Dorset (see Figure 3.54a).

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Figure 3.57
Simplified geology of the Isle of Wight, showing the position of the two GCR sites, at Compton Bay and Whitecliff and related sections.

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Figure 3.58
Map showing the details of the Compton Bay site. (MLWM = mean low water mark.)

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Figure 3.59
Marker beds in the Cenomanian Grey Chalk Subgroup at Compton Bay, Isle of Wight. Note the conspicuous cyclostratigraphy picked out by marl–limestone couplets. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.60
The Grey Chalk Subgroup succession, exposed at Compton Bay, Isle of Wight.

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Figure 3.61
(a, b) The base of the Upper Cretaceous in Compton Bay, Isle of Wight, at the contact between the Albian Upper Greensand and the Cenomanian Glauconitic Marl. (Scale: Tom Mortimore = 1.8 m tall). (GM = Glauconitic Marl; UGS = Upper Greensand). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.62
(a) Turonian–Coniacian Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation at the western end of the Compton Bay GCR site, adjacent to Freshwater Bay, Isle of Wight. (b) Base of the Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation in the Compton Down Military Road section in the Compton Bay GCR site, Isle of Wight. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.63
The lower part of the White Chalk Subgroup, exposed in Compton Bay and on the north side of Compton Down Military Road section, Isle of Wight. (gmz = griotte (or flaser) marl zone.)

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Figure 3.64
The southern end of the Whitecliff GCR site at Culver, Isle of Wight.

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Figure 3.65
Sketch drawing of the White Chalk Subgroup exposed at the northern end of Culver–Whitecliff, Isle of Wight (see also Figures 3.12 and 3.66a).

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Figure 3.66
The Seaford Chalk Formation at Whitecliff, Isle of Wight. (a) Seaford Chalk Formation and Basal Newhaven Chalk Formation. (b) Close-up of the Seaford Chalk Formation seen in centre of (a). (BCF=Bedwell’s Columnar Flint; BHF=Baily’s Hill Flint; BrPF=Brasspoint Flint; MDF=Michel Dean Flint; TNF1, TNF2=Tarring Neville Flints 1 and 2; W3=Whitakers’s 3-inch Flint Band). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.67
The lowest sections exposed at The Nostrils and ‘White Horse’ at the southern end of the Whitecliff GCR section.

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Figure 3.68
The top Seaford and basal Newhaven Chalk (Santonian) formations at Whitecliff, Isle of Wight.

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Figure 3.69
The succession including the so-called ‘Flintless Belt’ of Rowe (1908) in the middle of the Whitecliff GCR section, Isle of Wight. (P = paramoudra flints.) (From Mortimore and Pomerol, 1997.)

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Figure 3.70
The ‘Flintless-Chalk’ unit with hardgrounds within the Newhaven Chalk Formation at Whitecliff. (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.71
(a, b) Intraclasts, mobilized flints and block sliding incorporating the Telscombe Marl 1, the Culver section. Intraclasts in the Telscombe Marl in (b) are arrowed. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore).

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Figure 3.72
The Culver Chalk Formation, Culver Cliff (Whitecliff GCR site), Isle of Wight. Lower Campanian Gonioteuthis quadrata Zone. (B2ii and B2iii refer to the benthic foraminiferal zonal/subzonal scheme of Swiecicki (1980).)

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Figure 3.73
Portsdown Chalk Formation with numerous marl seams, Culver Cliff (Whitecliff), Isle of Wight, Upper Campanian Belemnitella mucronata Zone.

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Figure 3.74
(a, b) The Isle of Wight Tubular Flints (arrowed) in the Portsdown Chalk Formation, Whitecliff, Isle of Wight. (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.75
Sketch of the geology of the Culver Chalk Formation formerly exposed in Downend Chalk Pit, Portsdown. Hardgrounds, growth structures and slumps are interpreted as resulting from latest Early Campanian Peine Phase tectonic uplift. (From Mortimore, 1979, 1983; and Gale, 1980).

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Figure 3.76
Downend Chalk Pit, Portsdown, Hampshire, looking east onto the eastern and southern faces. Growth tectonics, synsedimentary slumping and penecontemporaneous slump folding in the intra-Early Campanian Culver Chalk Formation. (a) Box-folded flint band over the Downend Main Hardground (4). (b) Detail within Fold 2; slump folding. (c) Detail within Fold 3; a hardground succession. (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.77
Detail of Fold 1, Downend Chalk Pit. The Downend Main Hardground picks-out the fold and is inverted on the south side of the fold. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.78
Stratigraphy of the Campanian Chalk originally exposed at Downend Chalk Pit, Portsdown. Any two sections are different as synsedimentary channels and growth of penecontemporaneous slump folds create local pockets of expanded or condensed sediments. The sections shown are an attempt to illustrate the total range of the stratigraphy and the main subdivisions unravelled from the slump complex. (ms = marl seam; ml = marly laminae.)

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Figure 3.79
Structure contours on the Chalk of Portsdown, showing the shape of the Portsdown Anticline and Wallington Syncline. Peine phase tecto-sedimentary structures are present at Downend Chalk Pit and Warren Farm Chalk Pit, close to the crest and western flank of the structure. (From Mortimore and Pomerol, 1997.)

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Figure 3.80
Warren Farm Chalk Pit, Portsdown: Peine Facies change within the Culver Chalk Formation. (From Mortimore and Pomerol, 1997.)

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Figure 3.81
The Campanian Chalk succession at Warren Farm Chalk Pit, Portsdown. A vital link with Downend Chalk Pit.

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Figure 3.82
Paulsgrove Chalk Pit, Portsdown, Portsmouth, Hampshire.

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Figure 3.83
A possible correlation between Downend Chalk Pit, Warren Farm Chalk Pit and Farlington Chalk Pit (Gas Store Pit), Portsdown, and Whitecliff, Isle of Wight. B2ii and B2iii refer to the benthic foraminiferal zonal/subzonal scheme of Swiecicki (1980). (BJ = bedding joint; ms = marl seam; ml = marly laminae.)

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Figure 3.84
Location of GCR and other sites described in the text in the East Sussex Chalk Downs.

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Figure 3.85
Geology of the Brighton Chalk Block showing the Chalk outcrop and the location of the Newhaven to Brighton GCR site and related local sections. (Modified from BGS 1:50,000 Series Geological Maps, Sheets 318/333 and 319.)

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Figure 3.86
Castle Hill, Newhaen, at the eastern end of the Newhaven to Brighton GCR Site illustrating the sub-Palaeogene unconformity (compare the flint stratigraphy with Figure 3.92). (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.87
The cliffs beneath Castle Hill, Newhaven, with Palaeogene sediments resting unconformably on the Upper Cretacous Chalk (Culver Chalk Formation; Lower Campanian G. quadrata Zone). (CHF4, CHF5 = Castle Hill Flints 4 and 5.) (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.88
Schematic geological section of the Newhaven to Brighton cliffs GCR site showing the length of exposure in each of the main divisions of the Newhaven Chalk Formation and the length of section already covered by sea walls. Note the change from thinner beds at Friars Bay to thicker beds at Black Rock. The last vestiges of Palaeogene sediments capping Chalk die out at Portobello.

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Figure 3.89
The Newhaven to Brighton coast sections showing the main Upper Cretaceous Chalk sections.

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Figure 3.90
Saltdean Cliffs exposing the Saltdean to Old Nore marls in the Newhaven Chalk Formation in the Lower Campanian Echinocorys scutata depressula Subzone. Note the characteristic sheet-flints in this interval, which can be traced as a broad unit across southern England. (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.91
The Newhaven Chalk Formation–Culver Chalk Formation boundary at Telscombe Cliffs in the Newhaven to Brighton GCR site. (a) The youngest Chalk preserved on the Sussex coast, at Telscombe Cliffs. (b) The best section for the band of abundant Offaster pilula and large O.p. planatus in England. (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.92
The Chalk cliffs on the west side of Newhaven Harbour showing the key litho- and biostratigraphical features. (After Mortimore, 1997.)

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Figure 3.93
The Newhaven and Culver Chalk succession exposed in the cliffs at Bastion Steps, Peacehaven. The numbers 1–9 refer to the Castle Hill Flints.

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Figure 3.94
Correlation of the upper beds of the Newhaven Chalk Formation from Newhaven to adjacent areas and to the Isle of Wight. This shows the diachronous nature of the Culver Chalk Formation. (z = Zoophycos flints.) (After Mortimore and Pomerol 1997, fig.10.)

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Figure 3.95
The Portobello locality in the Brighton and Newhaven Cliffs GCR site. (a) The Bastion Steps Beds and basal Culver Chalk Formation exposed at the southeastern end of the Portobello locality. (b) The chalk exposed at the north-western end of the Portobello locality.

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Figure 3.96
Map of the Cuckmere to Seaford GCR site indicating the main geological features.

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Figure 3.97
Lower Coniacian upper Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation at Seaford Head west beneath the Castrum. (trz = total range zone.)

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Figure 3.98
Topmost Lewes Nodular Chalk and lower part of the Seaford Chalk Formation, Cuckmere to Seaford GCR site.

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Figure 3.99
Coniacian–Santonian boundary section, Seaford Head, Sussex. (CU = Basal Santonian beds with Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus; PV = top of lower belt of Platyceramus with Volviceramus; SSFB = Seven Sisters Flint Band (Belle Tout Beds–Cuckmere Beds boundary).) (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.100
Seaford Head: the Coniacian–Santonian boundary and the higher part of the Seaford Chalk Formation.

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Figure 3.101
Seaford Head: the lower half of the Newhaven Chalk Formation, including the Santonian–Campanian boundary.

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Figure 3.102
Seaford Head: the youngest Chalk from the Old Nore Beds, Newhaven Chalk Formation, to the Castle Hill Beds, Culver Chalk Formation (Lower Campanian).

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Figure 3.103
Seaford Head: The Santonian–Campanian (S/C) boundary. (a) The Pinnacle with the Brighton Marl at the base and Friars Bay Marls above. (b) Seaweed-covered Santonian–Campanian boundary: rough nodular beds below (arrowed). (FBF = Friars Bay Flints; FBM1, FBM2 = Friars Bay Marls 1 and 2.) (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.104
Seaford Head, Newhaven Chalk Formation, Lower Campanian Offaster pilula Zone. (BSB = Bastion Steps Beds; MB = Meeching Beds; ONB = Old Nore Beds; PB = Peacehaven Beds.) (Photo: R. N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.105
Seaford Head, western end, Newhaven and Culver Chalk formations; beds dip 10° north on the Seaford Anticline. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.106
Map of the Caburn group of chalk pits at Lewes, Sussex showing the position of the GCR sites (boldface type) in relation to correlative sections. (After Mortimore, 1997.)

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Figure 3.107
Map of the former cement works quarries, Southerham Grey Pit and Machine Bottom Pit, Lewes, Sussex. (After Mortimore, 1997.)

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Figure 3.108
(a, b) Southerham Grey Pit, Lewes, Sussex, in 1976 prior to closure in 1978. Marker beds and the rhythmic sedimentation used to establish the cyclostratigraphy in the lower part of the Grey Chalk Subgroup are indicated (see also Figure 3.5). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.109
Geological section for Southerham Grey Pit, Lewes, Sussex. Compare with Figures 3.5 and 3.108; and Figure 2.8, Chapter 2.

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Figure 3.110
Section for the Machine Bottom Pit (Southerham Grey Pit GCR site), Lewes, Sussex.

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Figure 3.111
Southerham Grey Pit correlated with Beachy Head illustrating the marked condensation in the Early Cenomanian West Melbury Marly Chalk at Eastbourne.

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Figure 3.112
The Machine Bottom Pit (part of the Southerham Grey Pit GCR site) correlated with Beachy Head, near Eastbourne, showing the very different lithologies of the two sites.

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Figure 3.113
Basal beds of the Plenus Marls Member in the type section at Beachy Head, Sussex. (a) Basal beds showing a cyclostratigraphy of paler and darker bands. (b, c) Sub-Plenus erosion surface mottled with (b) pale haloes of Bathichnus paramoudrae (arrowed) and (c) dark spirals of Zoophycos (arrowed). (B1 = Bed 1 with pyrite-filled burrows; B2 = Bed 2 with pyrite-filled burrows and an oyster band; B3 = Bed 3, a pale calcareous band; B4 = Bed 4, a dark marl with belemnites.) (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.114
Stratigraphy of the Turonian Holywell Nodular Chalk, New Pit Chalk and Lewes Nodular Chalk formations at Southerham Pit, Cliffe Industrial Estate (formerly known as ‘Eastwoods Pit’ or ‘Southerham Cement Works’). (gmz = griotte (or flaser) marl zone; ml = marly laminae.)

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Figure 3.115
The northern end of the Southerham Pit GCR site showing the Cuilfail Tunnel, South Portal cut in the former Navigation Pit. (After Mortimore, 1997.)

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Figure 3.116
The Southerham Navigation Pit, Lewes, Sussex, Late Turonian and the base of the Coniacian stages (inoceramid bivalve zones inferred by extrapolation from expanded successions in Germany, see Walaszczyk and Wood, (1999b)). (LNC = Lewes Nodular Chalk.)

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Figure 3.117
New Pit on Malling Hill, Lewes: the type section for the New Pit Chalk Formation–Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation junction and the New Pit Marls. A link to the Southerham Pit sections and the Sussex Downs.

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Figure 3.118
The Folkestone to Kingsdown GCR site; Folkestone–Dover cliffs including ‘The Warren’, Abbot’s Cliff, Shakespeare Cliff and Aycliff.

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Figure 3.119
The Grey Chalk Subgroup type section at Folkestone, Abbot’s Cliff, showing key litho- and biostratigraphy. (Modified from Gale in Jenkyns et al., 1994: and Mortimore, 1997.) The black symbols in the schlueteri Subzone represent spongiferous nodules.

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Figure 3.120
The Folkestone to Kingsdown GCR site from Langdon Cliffs to Kingsdown. For a description of localities (1)–(4) see text.

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Figure 3.121
The lowest sections on Langdon Stairs including the Dover Chalk Rock and Basal Complex. (Based on Mortimore, 1997.)

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Figure 3.122
East Cliff, Dover. (a) Looking west from Fan Bay across Langdon Bay to the east wall of Dover Harbour. (b) Lower part of the Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation in Fan Bay (scale given by Dr Silke Voigt). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.123
The upper sections on the Langdon Stairs exposure, Dover showing the Dover Top Rock and upper Lewes Nodular Chalk Formation. Inoceramid bivalve zones are inferred from expanded sections in Germany and are subject to review.

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Figure 3.124
Seaford Chalk Formation on Langdon Stairs, Langdon Cliff and East Cliff, Dover, showing key marker beds.

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Figure 3.125
The Thanet Coast Upper Cretaceous Chalk GCR site showing key features.

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Figure 3.126
The Chalk succession around the Thanet Coast of north-east Kent. The upper limit of the Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus Zone is uncertain.

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Figure 3.127
(a) The cliffs at Joss Bay, showing Whitakers 3-inch Flint Band (W3) and strongly cryoturbated chalk and flint. (b) Giant flint columns emanating from Bedwell’s Columnar Flint Band, South Portal, Ramsgate Harbour Tunnel (arrowed). (Photos: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.128
Aerial view of the Chalk cliffs on the south coast of the Isle of Thanet, Kent, between Pegwell village and Ramsgate Harbour. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore.)

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Figure 3.129
The Margate Chalk Member of the Thanet Coast. (a) North Thanet Coast, Birchington to Margate; caves are developed along vertical joint sets in Margate Chalk where the sea wall is absent. (b) South Thanet Coast, western end of Pegwell Bay, caves have developed along vertical joint sets in the Margate Chalk Member. (Photo: R.N. Mortimore).

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Figure 3.130
East side of Margate Headworks showing the cliffs of Botany Bay and the critical Chalk exposures in the Uintacrinus socialis and Marsupites testudinarius zones. (Photomosaic: R.N. Mortimore.)

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