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Volume 26: British Middle Jurassic Stratigraphy
 

Figure 1.1
Major Jurassic subdivisions. (1 = Geological time terms; 2 = Chronostratigraphical (time-rock) terms; † = Harland et al. (1990); * = Gradstein and Ogg (1996) (95% confidence level).)

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Figure 1.2
Simplified sketch map showing the main British Middle Jurassic outcrops (onshore area only).

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Figure 1.3
Chronostratigraphical subdivisions of the Middle Jurassic Series (for sources, see text).

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Figure 1.4
Ammonite biohorizons recognized in the British Middle Jurassic Series (for sources, see text).

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Figure 1.5
Examples of faunal-floral assemblages in some Mid Jurassic environments (modified from Sellwood, 1978). (a) High-energy, open marine oolite shoal assemblage; (b) clear-water, firm substrate marine assemblage; (c) low-energy, shallow-marine shelf assemblage; (d) freshwater–brackish-water assemblage.

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Figure 1.6
(a–c,e,f) Palaeogeographical reconstructions for the British area during the late Early and Mid Jurassic (slightly modified from Cope, 1995); (d) main structural elements affecting sedimentation in the British area in the Mid Jurassic (terminology as used in this volume). The ‘London Platform’ is a structural high, the limits of which remained generally constant. The emergent part of the Platform, the position and limits of which varied, is referred to as the ‘London Landmass’. (Compiled from various sources.)

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Figure 2.1
Geological sketch map showing the location of the GCR sites described in Chapter 2. (1) Shipmoor Point–Butterstreet Cove; (2) Tidmoor Point–East Fleet Coast; (3) Crookhill Brickpit; (4) Ham Cliff, Redcliff Point; (5) Burton Cliff and Cliff Hill Road Section; (6) Watton Cliff; (7) Peashill Quarry; (8) Horn Park Quarry; (9) Conegar Hill; (10) Ryewater, Corscombe; (11) Seavington St Mary Quarry; (12) Troll Quarry; (13) Bradford Abbas Railway Cutting; (14) Louse Hill Quarry; (15) Halfway House Cutting and Quarry; (16) Sandford Lane Quarry; (17) Frogden Quarry; (18) Goathill; (19) Holway Hill Quarry; (20) Milborne Wick Section; (21) Laycock Railway Cutting; (22) Shepton Montague; (23) Godminster Lane Quarry and Railway Cutting; (24) Bruton Railway Cutting; (25) Doulting Railway Cutting; (26) Vallis Vale; (27) Hinton Hill, Wellow; (28) Hinton Charterhouse; (29) Gripwood Quarry.

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Figure 2.2
Simplified diagrammatic cross-section through the Bathonian strata of Wessex. (After Bristow et al., 1995, fig. 23.)

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Figure 2.3
Simplified stratal subdivision of the Aalenian–Bajocian succession of the Wessex region. Vertical ruled lines indicate major non-sequences. Not to scale. (Based on data in Bristow et al., 1995, 1999; Callomon and Cope, 1995; and Parsons, 1980a.)

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Figure 2.4
Lithostratigraphical classification of the Great Oolite Group in the Wessex region. Vertical ruled lines indicate non-sequence. (Based on data in Penn and Wyatt, 1979; Torrens, 1980b; Page, 1989, 1996a; Bristow et al., 1995, 1999; and Wyatt, 1998.) (-E-E-E-E- = Echinata Bed; -A-A-A-A- = Acuminata Bed of Penn and Wyatt (1979); HS = Hinton Sand Member; LSL = Lower Smithi Limestone; RB = Rugitela Beds; TI = Twinhoe Ironshot; UFE = Upper Fuller’s Earth Member; USL = Upper Smithi Limestone.)

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Figure 2.5
Sketch map showing the position of the seven localities that comprise the Shipmoor Point– Butterstreet Cove and Tidmoor Point–East Fleet Coast GCR sites. (1) Shipmoor Point; (2) Berry Knap; (3) Rodden Hive Point; (4) Langton Hive Point; (5) Herbury; (6) Langton Herring Quarry; (7) Butterstreet Cove–Tidmoor Point.

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Figure 2.6
Stratal subdivisions and thicknesses at the localities within the Shipmoor Point–Butterstreet Cove and Tidmoor Point–East Fleet Coast GCR sites.

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Figure 2.7
(A) Digonella digona (J. Sowerby); (B) Goniorhynchia boueti (Davidson); (C) Praeexogyra hebridica (Forbes) var. elongata (Dutertre). (Reproduced from Damon, 1860, fig. 4; and Arkell, 1947a, fig. 3.) All specimens are natural size.

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Figure 2.8
General view of the Crookhill Brickpit GCR site. (Photo: K.L. Duff.)

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Figure 2.9
General view of Ham Cliff from Redcliff Point. The Callovian–Oxfordian stage boundary lies in the grey clays of the Oxford Clay Formation on the right of the picture. The steep cliff is in the lower part of the Corallian Group. (Photo: K.N. Page.)

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Figure 2.10
Graphic section of the Callovian–Oxfordian stage boundary beds at Ham Cliff. (After Callomon and Cope, 1995, fig. 21.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.11
East end of Burton Cliff showing the Bridport Sand Formation capped by the Inferior Oolite Formation. (Photo: A5849, British Geological Survey, 1932.)

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Figure 2.12
Section of Inferior Oolite Formation capping Bridport Sand Formation in the cutting on Cliff Road, Burton Bradstock. (Photo: A5851, British Geological Survey, 1932.)

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Figure 2.13
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at Burton Cliff, Burton Bradstock. (After Callomon and Cope, 1995, fig. 9.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.14
Fallen block of the Snuff-box Bed showing cross-sections of the characteristic limonitic oncoids known as ‘snuff-boxes’. (Photo: A5845, British Geological Survey, 1932.)

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Figure 2.15
Watton Cliff. The Boueti Bed at the base of the Forest Marble Formation cuts the cliff near the sharp bend in the cliff profile on the left (arrowed). Below lies the Frome Clay Formation. (Photo: A5838, British Geological Survey, 1932.)

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Figure 2.16
Diagrammatic cross-section of the cliffs between Eype Mouth and the River Brit (Bridport Harbour), including the Watton Cliff GCR site. (After Macfadyen, 1970, fig. 18.)

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Figure 2.17
Bryozoa from Peashill Quarry as illustrated by Walford (1889, pl. XIX). According to Walter (1967), figures 1–9 are Idmonea triquetra Lamouroux, figure 10 is Stomatopora spatiosa (Walford) and figures 11–12 are Mecynoecia bajociana (d’Orbigny). Magnifications, ranging from ×8 to ×20, are shown beside each figure.

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Figure 2.18
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at Horn Park Quarry. (After Callomon and Cope, 1995, fig. 10.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.19
Surface of the Horn Park Ironshot Bed (Bed 5a) with the graphoceratid ammonite Brasilia. The ruler at the bottom right is 15 cm long. (Photo: R.B. Chandler.)

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Figure 2.20
Graphic section of the succession at the Conegar Hill GCR site. (After Richardson, 1928–30, fig. 7.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.21
Sketch map of the Ryewater GCR site. (After Cope and Cox, 1970, fig. 2.) According to Page (1988), the Cornbrash Formation also crops out in the stream just north of Rye Water Lane.

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Figure 2.22
Type specimen of Proplanulites koenigi (J. Sowerby), chorotypes of which occur at the Ryewater GCR site; The Natural History Museum, London, specimen No. 43891C). The specimen is shown at natural size. (Photo: © The Natural History Museum.)

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Figure 2.23
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at the Seavington St Mary Quarry GCR site. (After Callomon and Chandler, 1990, fig. 3.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.24
Tulites subcontractus (Morris and Lycett) from the Fuller’s Earth Rock Member of Troll Quarry as figured by Arkell (1952, text-fig. 30). The specimen is shown at c. 75% natural size.

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Figure 2.25
The main face at Troll Quarry, as exposed in 1964. (Photo: H.S. Torrens.)

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Figure 2.26
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at Bradford Abbas Railway Cutting. (After Callomon and Chandler, 1990, fig. 3.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.27
Geological sketch section of the Bradford Abbas Railway Cutting as illustrated by Woodward (1894) showing the Inferior Oolite Formation in the east faulted against the Bridport Sand Formation which, to the west, is faulted against the Fuller’s Earth Formation.

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Figure 2.28
Graphoceras concavum (J. Sowerby) (Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge, X27846) – eponymous ammonite of the Aalenian Concavum Zone – from Bed 6a of the Bradford Abbas Railway Cutting GCR site as illustrated by Chandler and Sole (1996, pl. 2, figs 1a,b). The specimen is shown at natural size. (Photo: R.B. Chandler.)

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Figure 2.29
Sketch map showing isopachytes (in metres) for the Inferior Oolite Formation in the Wessex Basin and the GCR sites in the Sherborne area. (After Parsons, 1976a, fig. 1; and Barton et al., 1993, fig. 5.)

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Figure 2.30
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at Louse Hill Quarry. (After Callomon and Cope, 1995, fig. 11.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.31
Lectotype of Parkinsonia dorsetensis (Wright) from the Halfway House Cutting and Quarry GCR site based on Buckman (1928, pls DCCLXVIIA and B). Arkell (1956b) described this taxon as the principal species of the Truellei Subzone there. (A = c. 20% natural size; B = c. 80% natural size.)

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Figure 2.32
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at the Sandford Lane Quarry GCR site. (After Callomon and Chandler, 1990, fig. 4.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.33
Shirbuirnia trigonalis S.S. Buckman – eponymous ammonite of the Trigonalis Subzone (Laeviuscula Zone) and one of many fossils whose type specimen comes from Sandford Lane Quarry. (Reduced to c. 50% natural size from Buckman, 1910b, pl. 10, figs 2,3.)

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Figure 2.34
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at Frogden Quarry. (After Callomon and Cope, 1995, fig. 12.) For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.35
Frogdenites spiniger S.S. Buckman, type species of the genus which takes its name from Frogden Quarry, as illustrated by Buckman (1921, pl. 215). The specimen is shown at natural size.

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Figure 2.36
The quarry at Goathill (the hammer, to the far left, is resting on the Linguifera Bed). (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A15157; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1990.)

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Figure 2.37
(A) Ornithella bathonica (Rollier), lectotype from the Fuller’s Earth Rock Member, near Bath; (B) ‘Terebratulalinguifera Davidson, Fuller’s Earth Rock Member, Haydon, Dorset; (C) Ornithella haydonensis Muir-Wood; holotype from the Fuller’s Earth Rock Member, Haydon, Dorset. (Reproduced respectively from Muir-Wood, 1936, pl. 5, figs 7a–c; pl. 3, figs 12a–c; and pl. 5, figs 1a–c; courtesy of the Palaeontographical Society.) All specimens are shown at natural size.

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Figure 2.38
Homoeorhynchia ringens (von Buch) as illustrated by Davidson (1878). The specimen on which these figures are based in fact came from Halfway House Cutting and Quarry (see GCR site report, this volume). The specimen is shown at natural size.

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Figure 2.39
Graphic section of the Inferior Oolite Formation at the Milborne Wick Section. For lithologies, see text.

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Figure 2.40
Fuller’s Earth Formation exposed on the south side of Laycock Railway Cutting. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A15155; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1990.)

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Figure 2.41
Specimens of Praeexogyra acuminata (J. Sowerby) from Shepton Montague railway cutting as figured by Arkell (1934, pl. 2, figs 30–4).

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Figure 2.42
Diagrammatic reconstructed cross-section through the Inferior Oolite Formation in part of Wessex in Late Bajocian times, illustrating the syndepositional development and fault-control of the so-called ‘Cole Syncline’. The top of the Crackment Limestone Member is taken as the horizontal datum. (After Bristow et al., 1995, fig. 21.)

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Figure 2.43
Exposure of the Fuller’s Earth Rock Member behind the westbound platform at Bruton Railway Station in Bruton Railway Cutting. Marls and muddy limestones of the Rugitela Beds overlie limestones and marls of the Ornithella Beds; the hammer-head marks the boundary. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A15537; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1996.)

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Figure 2.44
Comparison of the zonation of the Middle–Upper Bathonian used herein with that previously used in Britain. (Modified from Page, 1996a.) (1 = Follows Torrens (1980b) emend.; Dietl and Callomon (1988); and Callomon and Cope (1995); Dietl and Callomon (1988) also divided the Orbis Zone into Blanazense and Hannoveranus subzones in the Subboreal Province of Germany; 2 = Follows Mangold (1991); and Mangold and Rioult (1997) but, following Page (1996a), the Procerites quercinus Biohorizon, at the base of the Blazanense Subzone, is elevated to a full Subzone; 3 = Aspidoides Zone of Torrens (1965, 1974, 1980b); 4 = ‘Retrocostatum’ Zone of Torrens (1974).)

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Figure 2.45
Graphic section of the Middle Jurassic succession atDoulting Railway Cutting. For lithologies, see text. Not all non-sequences shown.

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Figure 2.46
(A) Chomatoseris [‘Anabacia ’] porpites (Wm Smith) (reproduced from Milne Edwards and Haime, 1851, pl. 25, figs 3,3a; courtesy of the Palaeontographical Society); (B) Catinula knorri (Voltz) from quarries at Doulting (reproduced from Arkell, 1934, pl. 2, figs 8–12; courtesy of the Cotteswold Naturalists’ Field Club); (C) holotype of Procerites fullonicus (S.S. Buckman) from Combe Hay near Bath (reproduced from Arkell, 1958a, pl. 24, figs 1a,b; courtesy of the Palaeontographical Society). All specimens are shown at c. 90% of natural size.

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Figure 2.47
The unconformity between the Inferior Oolite Formation and the Carboniferous Limestone at Vallis Vale as illustrated by De la Beche (1846).

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Figure 2.48
Diagrammatic cross-section showing the facies relationships in the transition from the carbonate sediments of the Great Oolite Formation to the argillaceous sediments of the Frome Clay Formation south of Bath. (After Penn and Wyatt, 1979, fig. 17.)

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Figure 2.49
Oxycerites orbis (Giebel) from the Twinhoe Ironshot of Wellow (or Twinhoe) Quarry as figured by Arkell (1951b, text-fig. 17), but shown at c. 60% natural size. (Courtesy of the Palaeontographical Society.)

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Figure 2.50
North face of the sand pit at Hinton Charterhouse showing sandstone doggers in the Hinton Sand Member. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A9739; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1961.)

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Figure 2.51
Woodward’s (1894) sketch of the section at Gripwood Quarry showing an entrance into the underground galleries where the Ancliff Oolite of the Upper Rags Member (Forest Marble Formation) was worked.

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Figure 3.1
Geological sketch map showing the location of the GCR sites described in Chapter 3. (1) Barns Batch Spinney; (2) South Main Road Quarry; (3) Brown’s Folly; (4) Corsham Railway Cutting; (5) Kellaways–West Tytherton; (6) Lower Stanton St Quintin Quarry and Stanton St Quintin Motorway Cutting; (7) Hawkesbury Quarry; (8) Nibley Knoll; (9) Veizey’s Quarry; (10) Kemble Cuttings; (11) Woodchester Park Farm; (12) Minchinhampton; (13) Leigh’s Quarry; (14) Fort Quarry; (15) Haresfield Hill; (16) Frith Quarry; (17) Swift’s Hill; (18) Knap House Quarry; (19) Crickley Hill; (20) Leckhampton Hill; (21) Foss Cross; (22) Stony Furlong Railway Cutting; (23) Rolling Bank Quarry; (24) Hampen Railway Cutting; (25) First Cutting West of Notgrove; (26) Harford Cutting; (27) Huntsmans Quarry; (28) Jackdaw Quarry; (29) Snowshill Hill (Hornsleasow Quarry); (30) Cross Hands Quarry; (31) Sharps Hill; (32) Hook Norton; (33) Horsehay Quarry; (34) Ditchley Road Quarry; (35) Stonesfield; (36) Shipton-on-Cherwell Cement Works and Whitehill Farm Quarry.

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Figure 3.2
Diagrammatic cross-section through the Inferior Oolite Group showing the Painswick and Cleeve Hill ‘synclines’, and the intervening ‘Birdlip Anticline’. (After Akell, 1933, fig. 35; see also Barron et al. (1997, fig. 5) which shows a similar section through the ‘synclines’ based on more recent data and with revised lithostratigraphy.)

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Figure 3.3
Lithostratigraphical classification of the Inferior Oolite Group in the Cotswolds as shown in sites in Chapter 3. Columns are deliberately separated one from the other because of complexities of correlation and non-sequence. Vertical ruling indicates non-sequence. (Based on data in Barron et al., 1997; Parsons, 1979, 1980a; and Wyatt in Sumbler, 1996.)

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Figure 3.4
Lithostratigraphical classification of the Great Oolite Group and overlying beds in the Cotswold area. Columns are deliberately separated one from the other because the nomenclature as used in different areas is in need of rationalization. Vertical ruling indicates non-sequence. (Based on data in Cave, 1977; Horton et al., 1987; Page, 1989, 1996a; Sumbler et al., 2000; Wyatt in Sumbler, 1996; and herein.)

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Figure 3.5
Geological sketch map showing the location of the GCR sites (1) Barns Batch Spinney and (2) South Main Road Quarry. The site of (3) the BGS Elton Farm Borehole is also shown. (After Ivimey-Cook, 1978, fig. 1; and Kellaway and Welch, 1993, fig. 45.)

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Figure 3.6
Composite graphic section of the two GCR sites at Dundry Hill. Beds 1–8b are based on Barns Batch Spinney, beds 8c–13 are based on South Main Road Quarry. (After Callomon and Chandler, 1990, fig. 4.) Horizon numbers have been updated following Callomon in Callomon and Cope (1995). The thickness of Bed 10 is somewhat greater than that given by Parsons (1979). (MCG = Maes Knoll Conglomerate.)

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Figure 3.7
Exposure of Great Oolite Formation on the wooded slopes below Brown’s Folly. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.8
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at Brown’s Folly.

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Figure 3.9
North side, Corsham Railway Cutting; current-bedded shell-fragmental limestones and shelly ooidal limestone rest on a rubbly bedded patch-reef immediately west of mile post 99. The hammer-head rests on top of the underlying oolite freestone (Bath Oolite Member). (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A10913; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1967.)

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Figure 3.10
Diagrammatic section of the north side of Corsham Railway Cutting. (After Green and Donovan, 1969, fig. 6.)

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Figure 3.11
The Kellaways Sand Member exposed in the banks of the River Avon west of West Tytherton (Kellaways–West Tytherton GCR site). (Photo: B.M. Cox, 1970.)

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Figure 3.12
Lectotype of Sigaloceras calloviense (J. Sowerby); The Natural History Museum, London, specimen No. 43924a; c. 95% natural size. (Photo: © The Natural History Museum.)

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Figure 3.13
Graphic section showing the correlation between the cored Tytherton No. 3 Borehole and the exposures in the banks of the River Avon, west of West Tytherton (Kellaways–West Tytherton GCR site). (After Page, 1988.) Bed numbers follow Page (1988).

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Figure 3.14
Exposure of Cornbrash on the south side of the M4 motorway cutting (part of the Lower Stanton St Quintin Quarry and Stanton St Quintin Motorway Cutting GCR site). (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.15
Graphic section of the Bathonian– Callovian succession from the two locations that comprise the Lower Stanton St Quintin Quarry and Stanton St Quintin Motorway CuttingGCR site.

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Figure 3.16
Exposure at the western end of Hawkesbury Quarry showing the Upper Trigonia Grit Member overlying the Birdlip Limestone Formation. The boundary is marked by a black arrow. The quarry face is approximately 5 m high. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.17
Upper Trigonia Grit Member overlying Birdlip Limestone Formation at the quarry at Nibley Knoll. The hammer-head marks the bored hardground between the two. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.18
Exposure at the quarry at Nibley Knoll showing the Clypeus Grit and Upper Trigonia Grit members (c. 1 m) overlying the Birdlip Limestone Formation (c. 4.6 m). (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.19
Veizey’s Quarry: thin-bedded limestones and clay of the Forest Marble Formation overlying shell-detrital oolites (Combe Down Oolite Member, Great Oolite Formation) and the Athelstan Oolite Formation at the base. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A10941; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1967.)

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Figure 3.20
Diagrammatic section showing the lateral relationships in the ‘Kemble Beds’ (Great Oolite Formation) at Tetbury Branch Railway Cutting, Kemble Cuttings. (After Cave, 1977, fig. 18.) In other parts of the cutting (see description of Tetbury Branch Railway Cutting), the ‘Reef Bed’ facies is developed at the top of the ‘Kemble Beds’.

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Figure 3.21
Exposure of Forest Marble Formation in the Tetbury Branch Railway Cutting, Kemble Cuttings. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.22
Holotype of Clydoniceras hollandi (S.S. Buckman) from the basal clay of the Forest Marble Formation of Tetbury Road Station Cuttings, Kemble Cuttings. (Reproduced from Arkell, 1951, pl. 1, figs 6a,b.) The specimens are reproduced at c. 97% natural size, courtesy of the Palaeontographical Society.

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Figure 3.23
Dodington Ash Rock Member overlying ‘Minchinhampton Beds’ in the quarry at Woodchester Park Farm. The boundary is marked by a black arrow. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.24
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at Woodchester Park Farm.

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Figure 3.25
General view of Gate Quarry, Minchinhampton, looking north. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.26
Purpuroidea lycettea Hudleston and Wilson. (Reproduced from Morris and Lycett, 1851, pl. 5, figs 1–2.) Approximately natural size.

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Figure 3.27
Salperton Limestone Formation overlying the Birdlip Limestone Formation at Leigh’s Quarry. The boundary is marked by a black arrow. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.28
Upper Trigonia Grit Member (Salperton Limestone Formation) overlying thin Aston Limestone Formation at Fort Quarry. The formational boundary is marked by a black arrow. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A10482; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1966.)

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Figure 3.29
Overhang of the Leckhampton Member (Birdlip Limestone Formation) above the Cephalopod Bed (Lias Group) at Haresfield Hill. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.30
Aston Limestone Formation overlying Birdlip Limestone Formation at Frith Quarry. The boundary is marked by a white arrow. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.31
Type material of Homoeorhynchia cynomorpha (S.S. Buckman) from Frith Quarry. (Reproduced from Buckman, 1895, pl. 14, figs 2–4.)

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Figure 3.32
Edwin Witchell (1823–1887). (Reproduced courtesy of the Cotteswold Naturalists’ Field Club.)

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Figure 3.33
General view of the exposure of Aston Limestone Formation at Swift’s Hill with a small outcrop of the overlying Upper Trigonia Grit Member at centre top. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.34
Upper Trigonia Grit Member (Salperton Limestone Formation) overlying Scottsquar Member (Birdlip Limestone Formation) at Knap House Quarry. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.35
Exposure of the Crickley Member (Birdlip Limestone Formation) at Crickley Hill. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.36
Graphic section of the strata exposed at Crickley Hill. (After Ager, 1969, fig. B14.) See text for detailed lithological description.

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Figure 3.37
Specimen of the pisoidal packstone known as ‘Pea Grit’. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.) (90% natural size.)

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Figure 3.38
Birdlip Limestone Formation in the main face of Devil’s Chimney Quarry (at the Leckhampton Hill GCR site) showing the Scottsquar Member (‘Upper Freestone’ and ‘Oolite Marl’) overlying the Cleeve Cloud Member. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.39
Graphic section of the succession at Leckhampton Hill. (After Ager, 1969, fig. B15; and Sumbler and Barron, 1996.) For details of lithologies, see text.

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Figure 3.40
Solenopora jurassica Brown; BGS specimen No. GSM 119600, reproduced at c. 70% natural size. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.41
Exposure of the White Limestone Formation in the quarry at Foss Cross. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.42
Graphic section of the White Limestone Formation in the quarry at Foss Cross.

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Figure 3.43
Exposure of White Limestone Formation (beds 13 (top) to 28 (bottom)) in Stony Furlong Railway Cutting. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A5758, 1929.)

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Figure 3.44
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession in Stony Furlong Railway Cutting. Beds 13–21 are as exposed in the extant section described in the text; the remainder is based on Richardson (1911b).

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Figure 3.45
The ‘Chedworth Bun’ – Nucleolites woodwardi Wright. (Reproduced from Wright, 1854, pl. 12, figs 5a–e). Natural size.

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Figure 3.46
Section at Rolling Bank Quarry showing the rubbly Clypeus Grit Member overlying the more massive Upper Trigonia Grit Member, with ‘Phillipsiana Beds’ (Rolling Bank Member) below. The geologist’s hand rests on the boundary between the Upper Trigonia Grit Member and the ‘Phillipsiana Beds’. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.47
Minor faults and large debris-filled fissures at Rolling Bank Quarry as illustrated by Buckman (1897, fig. 3).

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Figure 3.48
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at Hampen Railway Cutting. Bed numbers follow Sumbler and Barron (1996) and Barron (1998).

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Figure 3.49
Exposure of the Hampen Formation in Hampen Railway Cutting. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.50
General view looking west in the First Cutting West of Notgrove, showing the eastward dip of the Clypeus Grit Member. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.51
Clypeus ploti Salter. Reproduced from Wright, 1859, pls 28,29, at approximately 90% natural size.

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Figure 3.52
Exposure of the Aston Limestone Formation in Harford Cutting. The geologist’s hand rests on the planar top surface of the Notgrove Member. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.53
Sketch section illustrating the northern face of Harford Cutting. (After Woodward, 1894, fig. 43.) Total length of section c. 550 m; maximum depth c. 15 m. Vertical bars are bridges, now demolished. Recent examination of the cutting indicates that this diagram is not accurately drawn to scale; for example, the width of the graben near the western end of the section is greatly exaggerated. However, it gives a reasonable impression of the section’s complexity.

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Figure 3.54
The Cotswold Slate at Huntsmans Quarry. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.55
Exposure at Jackdaw Quarry showing ‘White Guiting Limestone’ in the lower face overlain by Scottsquar Member and the Harford Member. The Lower Trigonia Grit Member is just visible at the top of the section in the middle. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.56
Snowshill Hill (Hornsleasow Quarry). The floor of the quarry here is the level from which the Hornsleasow Clay has been excavated from the Chipping Norton Limestone Formation; the latter forms the bench with Fuller’s Earth Formation above. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.57
Graphic section of the succession at Snowshill Hill (Hornsleasow Quarry). (After Torrens, 1969d.)

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Figure 3.58
Chipping Norton Limestone Formation overlying Clypeus Grit Member (Salperton Limestone Formation) at Cross Hands Quarry. The hammer-head (arrowed) marks the formational boundary. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.59
Exposure of Northampton Sand Formation near the entrance of the quarry at Sharps Hill; the steep dip is due to valley-bulging and cambering. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.) = Figure 3.60 Graphic log of a trench section through the Sharp’s Hill Formation (beds 1–20) and uppermost Chipping Norton Limestone Formation at Sharps Hill. (Based on B. Boneham MS (English Nature files); see Boneham and Forsey, 1992.) Bed numbering follows Richardson (1911a) but this slightly expanded section may include representatives of Walford’s (1906) beds 7 to 10 (see text). Stegosaur remains were found in the lower part of the Sharp’s Hill Formation.

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Figure 3.61
Exposure of the Chipping Norton Limestone Formation at the north end of the railway cutting at Hook Norton. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A9829; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1960.)

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Figure 3.62
Clypeus Grit Formation resting on clays of the Lias Group at Hook Norton. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A9820; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1960.)

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Figure 3.63
Horsehay Sand Formation overlain by the Sharp’s Hill Formation and the Taynton Limestone Formation at Horsehay Quarry. The base of the rule (arrowed) rests on top of the Horsehay Sand Formation. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.64
Graphic section of the succession at Horsehay Quarry.

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Figure 3.65
‘Boxstone’ weathering in the Northampton Sand Formation at Horsehay Quarry. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.66
Ditchley Road Quarry. The lower part of the quarry is excavated in Chipping Norton Limestone Formation, which is locally the basal unit of the Great Oolite Group. This is overlain by dark-grey clays of the Sharp’s Hill Formation, which are, in turn, succeeded by the buff marls and marly limestone of the Charlbury Formation with the paler Taynton Limestone Formation above. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A15217; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1991.)

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Figure 3.67
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at Ditchley Road Quarry.

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Figure 3.68
Sketch map showing the distribution of the Stonesfield Slate. (After Benton and Spencer, 1995, fig. 6.6.)

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Figure 3.69
Typical Stonesfield Slate mine close to the shaft at Home Close Mine beneath Stonesfield village. The area on the right-hand side of the photo has been worked out, and the roof is supported by pillars of waste material. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.70
Shipton-on-Cherwell Cement Works. The lower face is the Ardley Member (White Limestone Formation), overlain by the Bladon Member (covered by scree), Forest Marble Formation and then remanié Cornbrash Formation. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 3.71
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at Shipton-on-Cherwell Cement Works.

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Figure 3.72
Facies variation in the Forest Marble Formation of Shipton-on-Cherwell Cement Works. (Based on Allen and Kaye, 1973, fig. 3.)

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Figure 4.1
Geological sketch map showing the location of the GCR sites described in Chapter 4. (1) Woodeaton; (2) Ardley Cuttings and Quarries; (3) Stratton Audley; (4) Blisworth Rectory Farm; (5) Roade Railway Cutting; (6) Irchester Old Lodge Pit; (7) Finedon Gullet; (8) Cranford St John; (9) Thrapston; (10) Peterborough Brickpits; (11) Collyweston; (12) Ketton Quarry; (13) Clipsham Quarry; (14) Castle Bytham; (15) Sproxton Quarry; (16) Copper Hill; (17) Metheringham; (18) Greetwell Quarry; (19) Cliff Farm Pit; (20) Manton Stone Quarry; (21) Eastfield Quarry; (22) Drewton Lane Pits.

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Figure 4.2
Lithostratigraphical classification of Aalenian–Bajocian rocks in the East Midlands Shelf area. Columns are deliberately separated one from the other because of the tenuous nature of some correlations. Vertical ruling indicates non-sequence. (Based on data in Ashton, 1977, 1980; Horton et al., 1987; Gaunt et al., 1992; Wyatt, 1996a,b.)

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Figure 4.3
Main subdivisions of the Lincolnshire Limestone Formation in the Stamford–Grantham– Lincoln area.

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Figure 4.4
Lithostratigraphical classification of the Bathonian and overlying Callovian rocks in the southern part of the East Midlands Shelf area. Columns are deliberately separated one from the other because of the tenuous nature of some correlations. Vertical ruling indicates non-sequence. (Based on data in Bradshaw, 1978; Cripps, 1986; Horton et al., 1987; Page, 1989; and Wyatt, 1996a.) (KF = Kellaways Formation.)

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Figure 4.5
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession in the quarry at Woodeaton. (After Horton et al., 1995, fig. 9.)

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Figure 4.6
The quarry at Woodeaton; flaggy limestones of the Forest Marble Formation overlie a complete White Limestone Formation, with a fault of c. 3 m downthrow. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A15356; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1991.)

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Figure 4.7
The quarry at Woodeaton; west face showing faults with terminal bending of beds. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A15358; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1991.)

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Figure 4.8
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at the Ardley Cuttings and Quarries GCR site.

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Figure 4.9
Ardley–Fritwell railway cutting (Ardley Cuttings and Quarries GCR site) showing the White Limestone Formation. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A9865; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1960.)

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Figure 4.10
Stratigraphically useful nerineid gastropod species. (A,B) Aphanoptyxis excavata sp. nov.; (A) OUM J29500 holotype; (B) OUM J29501 paratype; White Limestone Formation, Shipton Member, Excavata Bed; Sturt Farm (or Whitehill North) Quarry, Burford, Oxfordshire. (C,D) Aphanoptyxis langrunensis (d’Orbigny); (C) UP 77/50, Hydrequent, Pas de Calais, France; (D) UP EC/43; White Limestone Formation, Ardley Member, Bed 14 of Barker (1976); Eton College Quarry, Asthall, Oxfordshire. (E,F) Eunerinea arduennensis (Buvignier); (E) UP Sl.H.Ox./5/296; (F) UP Sl.H.Ox/5/23; White Limestone Formation, Ardley Member, Bed 5 of Barker (1976); Slape Hill, Wooton, Oxfordshire. (G,H) Aphanoptyxis ardleyensis Arkell; (Ga) OUM J829 lectotype; (Gb) OUM J828 paratype; (H) OUM J830 paratype; White Limestone Formation, Ardley Member, Ardleyensis Bed; Ardley-Fritwell railway cutting, Ardley, Oxfordshire. (I) Aphanoptyxis bladonensis Arkell; OUM J840 holotype; White Limestone Formation, Ardley Member, Bladonensis Bed; Orchard Quarry, Bladon, Oxfordshire. (OUM = Oxford University Museum UP = University of Portsmouth.)

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Figure 4.11
The southern face of the partly flooded quarry at Stratton Audley showing the White Limestone Formation overlain by the Forest Marble Formation. The formational boundary is marked by the white arrow. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.12
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at the Stratton Audley GCR site.

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Figure 4.13
Poorly exposed Blisworth Limestone Formation at the Blisworth Rectory Farm GCR site. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.14
Correlation of GCR sites between Blisworth and Wellingborough (Blisworth Rectory Farm, Roade Railway Cutting, Irchester Old Lodge Pit and Finedon Gullet).

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Figure 4.15
The brachiopods (A) Digonella digonoides (S.S. Buckman), and (B) Kallirhynchia sharpi Muir-Wood which give their names to marker horizons in the Blisworth Limestone Formation. ((B) is reproduced from Muir-Wood (1938, fig. 15, 2A–C) courtesy of The Geologists’ Association.) All natural size.

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Figure 4.16
Exposure of Blisworth Limestone Formation at Roade Railway Cutting; view looking north from the overbridge at the southern end. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.17
Irchester Old Lodge Pit; general view of former ironstone pit showing bared bed of ironstone (Northampton Sand Formation) and overburden of Grantham, Rutland and Blisworth Limestone formations. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A8194, 1945.)

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Figure 4.18
The section at Finedon Gullet showing the Blisworth Limestone Formation overlying mainly grass-covered Rutland Formation. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.19
Oysters and Kallirhynchia sharpi Muir-Wood in the well-developed Sharpi Beds at Finedon Gullet. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.20
Looking south at the Cranford St John GCR site; the Blisworth Limestone Formation overlies the Rutland Formation. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.21
Graphic section of the Bathonian succession at Cranford St John.

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Figure 4.22
Facies changes at Cranford St John where the Finedon Rhythm of the Rutland Formation passes into the Blisworth Limestone Formation. (After Bradshaw and Cripps, 1983, fig. 11.)

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Figure 4.23
The quarry at Thrapston showing the Cornbrash Formation overlying the grass-covered Blisworth Clay Formation with Blisworth Limestone Formation below. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A8361, 1949.)

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Figure 4.24
Sketch map showing the location of some Oxford Clay Formation sites (past and present) around Peterborough (Peterborough Brickpits GCR site). (After Hudson and Martill, 1994.)

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Figure 4.25
King’s Dyke Pit, Whittlesey. Shale-planar excavator digging the Oxford Clay Formation for brick-making. The section illustrates the marked alternations of darker, brownish-grey, organic-rich mudstone and paler, more calcareous, mudstone. The excavator works down to the lowest bed of concretions in the Oxford Clay Formation (Bed 10 of Callomon, 1968; and Hudson and Martill, 1994). (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. MN26846; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1987.)

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Figure 4.26
Graphic section of the Peterborough Member of the Oxford Clay Formation in the Peterborough district. (After Hudson and Martill, 1994; and Duff, 1975; bed numbers follow Hudson and Martill, 1994.)

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Figure 4.27
Diagrammatic representation of the Peterborough Member faunal community. (After Hudson and Martill, 1991.)

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Figure 4.28
Collyweston Slate workings showing slates stacked before trimming and slabs laid out for ‘frosting’. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A8333, 1949.)

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Figure 4.29
The gastropod Phyllochilus bentleyi (Morris and Lycett) which is known locally as the Collyweston ‘water-spider’. (Reproduced from Morris and Lycett (1851–1855, pl. 3, figs 15,15a,16) courtesy of the Palaeontographical Society.) All natural size.

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Figure 4.30
Lincolnshire Limestone Formation at Ketton Quarry. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Lincolnshire Limestone is marked by a white arrow. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.31
Graphic section of the Lincolnshire Limestone Formation at Ketton Quarry. (After Ashton in Ashton and Hudson, 1979.)

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Figure 4.32
Graphic section of the Rutland Forma-tion at Ketton Quarry. (After Bradshaw and Cripps, 1983, fig. 5.)

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Figure 4.33
Graphic sections showing correlation of the rhythms in the Rutland Formation between Ketton, Cranford St John and Irchester. (After Bradshaw and Cripps, 1983, fig. 9.)

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Figure 4.34
Rutland Formation overlying the Upper Lincolnshire Limestone (Clipsham Member) at Clipsham Quarry. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.35
Lincolnshire Limestone Formation in the quarry at Castle Bytham. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Lincolnshire Limestone is marked by a white arrow. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.36
Graphic section of the Lincolnshire Limestone Formation at Castle Bytham. (After Ashton, 1980, figs 6,9.)

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Figure 4.37
Lincolnshire Limestone Formation overlying Northampton Sand Formation at Sproxton Quarry. The bench near to the water level is the top surface of the Northampton Sand Formation. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.38
Graphic sections of the Aalenian–Bajocian succession at Sproxton Quarry. (After Richardson, 1939b, fig. 40; and Ashton, 1980, fig. 6.)

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Figure 4.39
Graphic section of the Lincolnshire Limestone Formation in the quarry at Copper Hill. (After Sumbler et al., 1991, fig. 6.)

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Figure 4.40
Part of the NNW face in the quarry at Copper Hill showing the Clipsham Member (with large-scale cross-bedding dipping 20–30° northwards) and the Sleaford Member of the Upper Lincolnshire Limestone resting (near the base and marked by a hammer) on Lower Lincolnshire Limestone. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A15099; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1991.)

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Figure 4.41
Graphic section of the Lincolnshire Limestone Formation in the quarry at Metheringham. (After Ashton, 1980, figs 6,9.)

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Figure 4.42
Lower Lincolnshire Limestone in the quarry at Metheringham. The Kirton Shale Member lies beneath the overhang near the base. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.43
Graphic sections of the Lincolnshire Limestone Formation and underlying beds at Greetwell Quarry. (Based mainly on Richardson, 1940, fig. 29; and Ashton, 1980, fig. 6; with the highest beds as recorded by M.G. Sumbler in 1997.)

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Figure 4.44
Lower Lincolnshire Limestone at Greetwell Quarry. The Wragby Bed in the Greetwell Member is the massive bed on the left of the photograph in the lower part of the face; the paler unit in the upper part of the face is the Leadenham Member and the Kirton Shale (Kirton Shale Member of Ashton, 1980) lies near the top. The fold structure is probably a result of collapse over an ironstone mine in the Northampton Sand Formation, the top of which is visible at bottom left. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.45
Graphic sections of the Lincolnshire Limestone Formation at Cliff Farm Pit and Manton Stone Quarry. (Based partly on Ashton, 1975, fig. 3; lithostratigraphy based on Gaunt et al., 1992.)

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Figure 4.46
Kirton Shale overlain by Hibaldstow Limestone Member at Cliff Farm Pit. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.47
The brachiopods (A) Acanthothiris crossi (Walker) and (B) Parvirhynchia kirtonensis Muir-Wood; both shown at natural size and enlarged. (Reproduced respectively from Davidson, 1878, pl. 27, fig. 17; and Muir-Wood, 1939, fig. 42, 3A–C (courtesy of The Geologists’ Association)).

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Figure 4.48
Kirton Cementstone Member with Scawby Limestone at Manton Stone Quarry. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.49
Simplified geological sketch map showing Drewton Lane Pits and Eastfield Quarry GCR sites. (1) South Newbald Quarry; (2) Kettlethorpe Quarry; (3) South Cave Station Quarry; (4) Drewton Railway Cutting; (5) Eastfield (Everthorpe) Quarry. (After Walker, 1972, fig. 1.)

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Figure 4.50
Cave Oolite Member at Eastfield Quarry. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. L2947; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1982.) = Figure 4.51 Graphic section of the Bajocian succession at Eastfield Quarry showing the approximate relationship of different authors’ bed numbers and subdivisions.

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Figure 4.52
Poorly preserved Hyperlioceras fragment from the Cave Oolite Member of Eastfield Quarry (BGS specimen number GSM 112733); scale-bar represents 50 mm. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.53
South Cave Station Quarry (part of the Drewton Lane Pits GCR site), showing the pale Kellaways Sand Member overlain by the darker Cave Rock Member. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 4.54
Graphic sections showing the correlation between South Cave Station Quarry and Kettlethorpe Quarry. Bed notation follows Brasier and Brasier (1978) and Page (1988) respectively.

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Figure 5.1
Structural setting of the Cleveland Basin. (After Rawson and Wright, 1995, fig. 2.)

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Figure 5.2
Lithostratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic rocks of Yorkshire. At its type locality, the Scarborough Formation has been divided into seven members (Parsons, 1977b; Gowland and Riding, 1991). From below, these are named Helwath Beck, Hundale Shale, Hundale Sandstone, Spindle Thorn Limestone, Ravenscar Shale, White Nab Ironstone and Bogmire Gill. Not to scale.

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Figure 5.3
Geological sketch map showing the location of the GCR sites described in Chapter 5. (1) Whitwell Quarry; (2) Gristhorpe Bay, Yons Nab and Red Cliff–Cunstone Nab; (3) Osgodby Point; (4) South Toll House Cliff; (5) North Bay, Scarborough; (6) Hackness Rock Pit; (7) Havern Beck, Saltergate; (8) Hudson’s Cross Crags, Newton Dale; (9) Fairy Call Beck; (10) Iron Scar–Hundale and Hundale Point–Scalby Ness; (11) Blea Wyke; (12) Hawsker Bottoms.

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Figure 5.4
Summary of main lithologies and depositional environments of the North Yorkshire coast Middle Jurassic succession. (Compiled from various sources; see text.)

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Figure 5.5
Part of the old quarry face at the Whitwell Quarry GCR site showing Whitwell Oolite overlain by Upper Limestone. The figure’s hand rests on the top surface of the Whitwell Oolite. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 5.6
Facies distribution sketch map of the Whitwell Oolite and the Millepore Bed which together form the transgressive leaf of the Lebberston Member. (After Hemingway, 1974, fig. 51.)

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Figure 5.7
Locality map for Gristhorpe Bay, Yons Nab and Red Cliff–Cunstone Nab.

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Figure 5.8
Diagrammatic cross-section of the cliffs at the south-eastern end of Cayton Bay. (After Rawson and Wright, 1992, fig. 24.)

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Figure 5.9
Red Cliff Rocks and Red Cliff Fault. The fault is in the gully and downthrows to the west (right of photo); the Millepore Bed is exposed between tides in the foreground. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A5487, 1931.)

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Figure 5.10
Collapora straminea (Phillips) – the bryozoan, originally called Millepora straminea, that gives its name to the Millepore Bed. (Reproduced (×4) from Phillips, 1835, pl. 9, fig. 1.)

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Figure 5.11
Examples of fossil plants from the Gristhorpe Plant Bed. (a) Leaf Sagenopteris phillipsi (Brongniart); (b) leaf Nilssonia compta (Phillips); (c) restoration of male cone Androstrobus manis Harris; (d) restoration of female cone Beania gracilis Carruthers. ((a) and (b) natural size (redrawn from British Museum (Natural History), 1975), (c) and (d) × 0.5 (redrawn from Hughes, 1976).)

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Figure 5.12
Gristhorpe Bay. In the middle distance is the headland Yons Nab and in the far distance Scarborough. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. L1342; reproduced with the permission of the Director; British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1974.)

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Figure 5.13
High Red Cliff, Cayton Bay. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A5488, 1931.)

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Figure 5.14
Diagrammatic cross-section of the Callovian succession on the coast south of Scarborough. (After Wright, 1968, fig. 3.)

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Figure 5.15
Graphic section of Callovian–Oxfordian boundary sequence on the north side of Osgodby Point. (After Wright, 1969, fig. C4.)

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Figure 5.16
Members of the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian working groups of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy sampling the Callovian–Oxfordian boundary sequence on the north side of Osgodby Point. (Photo: K.N. Page.)

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Figure 5.17
Castle Hill (a faulted outlier of Middle and Upper Jurassic rocks) (centre distance) and South Bay, Scarborough. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 5.18
Neotype of Macrocephalites terebratus (Phillips); The Natural History Museum, London, specimen No. 39566; natural size. (Photo: © The Natural History Museum.)

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Figure 5.19
Neotype of Peltoceras athleta (Phillips); The Natural History Museum, London, specimen No. 89052; approximately natural size. (Photo: © The Natural History Museum.)

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Figure 5.20
Part of the uncoloured lithograph of William Smith’s map of Hackness with the location of the Hackness Rock Pit GCR site added. (Modified from Sheppard, 1917, pl. 17.)

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Figure 5.21
Havern Beck, Saltergate. The Cornbrash Formation is well exposed behind the waterfall. (Photo: K.N. Page.)

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Figure 5.22
Simplified distribution map of the subdivisions of the Cornbrash Formation in the Cleveland Basin showing thicknesses (in metres) at the GCR sites. (After Wright, 1977, fig. 3.) = Figure 5.23 Stream-bed exposure of the Cornbrash Formation in Fairy Call Beck near Fairystones Bridge. (Photo: K.N. Page.)

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Figure 5.24
Correlation between the sections at Fairy Call Beckand Havern Beck. (After Wright, 1978, fig. 2.)

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Figure 5.25
Locality map for Iron Scar–Hundale and Hundale Point–ScalbyNess.

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Figure 5.26
Graphic section of coastal exposures between Cloughton Wyke and Scalby Ness. (After Rawson and Wright, 1995, fig. 9.)

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Figure 5.27
Cloughton Wyke and cliffs from Hundale Point; the cliff in the foreground is Moor Grit Member, the reefs on the right Scarborough Formation. The reefs at the projecting headlands in the distance are formed by the Millepore Bed (Lebberston Member) and Eller Beck Formation. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A5494, 1931.)

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Figure 5.28
Ripple-marked sandstone (Gristhorpe Member), north side of Cloughton Wyke. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A5497, 1931.)

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Figure 5.29
Dinosaur footprint in the Burniston Footprint Bed. (Photo: D.N. and J.K. Wright; reproduced with permission of the Geologists’ Association.)

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Figure 5.30
Scalby Bay foreshore showing ‘meander-belt complex’ of the Long Nab Member. (Photo: J.K. Wright; reproduced with permission of the Geologists’ Association.)

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Figure 5.31
Blea Wyke Sandstone Formation (Lias Group) overlain by the Dogger Formation. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. A5504, 1931.)

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Figure 5.32
Diagrammatic cross-section through the Peak Fault at Ravenscar and adjoining cliffs. (After Rawson and Wright, 1992, fig. 13.)

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Figure 5.33
Modified version of Hudleston’s (1874) diagram showing the stratal units and marker beds in the Dogger Formation on the northern side of Blea Wyke (approximately to scale; see Figure 5.31).

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Figure 5.34
Waterfall exposure of the Scarborough Formation north of Bottom Lane, Hawsker Bottoms. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 6.1
Geological sketch maps showing the location of the GCR sites described in Chapter 6. (1) Brora (Bathonian); (2) Brora (Callovian); (3) Cadh’-an-Righ; (4) Isle of Eigg; (5) Elgol–Glen Scaladal; (6) North Elgol Coast; (7) Dun Skudiburgh; (8) Duntulm (Cairidh Ghlumaig and Lon Ostatoin); (9) Staffin Bay; (10) Staffin; (11) Valtos; (12) Bearreraig Bay; (13) Beinn na Leac.

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Figure 6.2
Lithostratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic rocks of the Isle of Skye and the Isle of Raasay (Inner Hebrides). Not to scale. (* = presence of zone indicated by ammonites.)

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Figure 6.3
Lithostratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic rocks of north-east Scotland. Not to scale. (* = presence of zone indicated by ammonites.)

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Figure 6.4
Locality and geological sketch map for the Brora (Bathonian) GCR site. (After Hurst (in Trewin and Hurst, 1993, figs 1,3).)

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Figure 6.5
Graphic section of the Brora Coal Formation at the Brora (Bathonian) GCR site. (After Hurst (in Trewin and Hurst, 1993, fig. 4).)

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Figure 6.6
Locality map for the Brora (Callovian) GCR site.

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Figure 6.7
Correlation between the Callovian sections at the Brora (Callovian) and Cadh’-an-Righ GCR sites. (After Sykes, 1975, fig. 7.)

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Figure 6.8
Sketch maps showing the relative positions of the Brora and Cadh’-an-Righ outcrops (a) after, and (b) before post-Jurassic movement along the Great Glen Fault. (After Sykes, 1975, fig. 2.)

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Figure 6.9
Locality map for theIsle of Eigg GCR site, which comprises three separate localities. (A) Coast north of Kildonnan; (B) Bogha na Brice-nis to Bay of Laig; (C) Laig Gorge.

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Figure 6.10
Camas Sgiotaig, Isle of Eigg. The sea cliffs are of Valtos Sandstone Formation, which gives rise to the pure white ‘singing sands’ of the beach. (Photo: British Geological Survey, No. D1706; reproduced with the permission of the Director, British Geological Survey, © NERC, 1974.)

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Figure 6.11
Geological sketch map of the type locality of the Kildonnan Member (Lealt Shale Formation) on the coast north of Kildonnan, Isle of Eigg (for bed numbers, see Figure 6.12). (After Emeleus, 1997, fig. 12.)

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Figure 6.12
Graphic section of the Kildonnan Member at its type locality. (After Emeleus, 1997, fig. 13.) Bed numbers follow Wakefield (1991).

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Figure 6.13
Outcrop map of the Valtos Sandstone Formation between Bogha na Brice-nis and Bay of Laig,Isle of Eigg. (After Emeleus, 1997, fig. 14.) Division letters follow Harris (1984).

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Figure 6.14
Graphic section of the Duntulm and Kilmaluag formations at Laig Gorge, Isle of Eigg. (After Emeleus, 1997, figs 17,18). Bed and facies numbers follow Andrews (1984, 1985).

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Figure 6.15
Locality map for theElgol–Glen Scaladal GCR site.

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Figure 6.16
Cliffs of Elgol Sandstone Formation behind the school (centre right) at Elgol. The Cuillin Hills are in the background. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 6.17
Graphic section of the Elgol Sandstone Formation at its type locality. (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 19.)

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Figure 6.18
Graphic section of the Lealt Shale Formation on the coast north of Elgol, Isle of Skye. (After Wakefield, 1994, fig. 50.) Bed numbers follow Andrews (1984).

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Figure 6.19
Graphic section of the Valtos Sandstone Formation on the coast north of Elgol, Isle of Skye. (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 20.)

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Figure 6.20
Composite graphic section of the Duntulm Formation at Elgol–Glen Scaladal. (After Emeleus, 1997, fig. 17.) Bed and facies numbers follow Andrews (1984).

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Figure 6.21
Graphic section of the Kilmaluag Formation, north of Elgol, Isle of Skye. (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 23.) Bed numbers follow Andrews (1984).

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Figure 6.22
Main lithologies, fossils and depositional environments of the Great Estuarine Group of the Inner Hebrides. (After Hudson et al., 1995, fig. 1.)

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Figure 6.23
Correlation between the Callovian sections at North Elgol and Staffin. (After Sykes, 1975, fig. 7.)

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Figure 6.24
Locality map for the Dun Skudiburgh GCR site.

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Figure 6.25
Graphic section of the Skudiburgh Formation at Dun Skudiburgh. (After Andrews, 1985, fig. 7.) Bed numbers follow Andrews (1984, 1985).

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Figure 6.26
Low cliff exposure of the Skudiburgh Formation beneath the picrite–dolerite sill at Dun Skudiburgh. (Reproduced by kind permission of the Geologists’ Association.)

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Figure 6.27
Locality map for the Duntulm GCR site. (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 35.)

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Figure 6.28
Foreshore exposures of the Duntulm Formation in Cairidh Ghlumaig south of Duntulm Castle. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 6.29
Graphic sections of the Duntulm and Kilmaluag formations exposed at the Duntulm GCR site. (After Andrews, 1985, fig. 3; and Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 36.) Bed numbers follow Andrews (1984, 1985).

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Figure 6.30
General view of Staffin Bay looking north-west. The foreshore exposures on the far side of the bay comprise the GCR site. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 6.31
Locality and geological sketch maps for the Staffin Bay GCR site. (Partly based on Andrews, 1984, fig. 7.)

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Figure 6.32
Graphic section of the Skudiburgh Formation at Staffin Bay. (After Andrews, 1985, fig. 7.) Bed numbers follow Andrews (1984, 1985).

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Figure 6.33
Locality map for the Staffin GCR site.

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Figure 6.34
Main stratal divisions of the Callovian succession at Staffin. Not to scale. (* = presence of subzone indicated by ammonites.)

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Figure 6.35
Locality map for the Valtos GCR site which comprises three separate localities. (A) Invertote and Lealt River; (B) Rubha nam Brathairean (Sgeir Dhubh to mouth of Lonfearn Burn); (C) Valtos to Mealt Falls.

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Figure 6.36
The Lealt River gorge showing the first waterfall (formed by a dolerite sill) below the road bridge. The upper part of the Lealt Shale Formation is exposed above the waterfall. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 6.37
Graphic section of the Lonfearn Member (Lealt Shale Formation) at its type locality. (After Harris and Hudson, 1980, fig. 6.) Bed numbers follow Harris and Hudson (1980).

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Figure 6.38
Looking south from the Mealt Falls viewpoint at the high cliffs of the Valtos Sandstone Formation below Dun Dearg. The promontory of Rubha nam Brathairean is seen in the far distance. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 6.39
Graphic section of the Valtos Sandstone Formation at its type locality. (After Harris and Hudson, 1980, fig. 7.) Bed numbers follow Harris and Hudson (1980).

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Figure 6.40
Concretions in the type section of the Valtos Sandstone Formation (formerly known as the ‘Concretionary Sandstone Series’). (Photo: J.D. Hudson.)

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Figure 6.41
Geological map of Bearreraig Bay, Trotternish, Isle of Skye. (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 24.)

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Figure 6.42
View of cliffs south of Bearreraig Bay, from a point east of the hydroelectric power station. The Ollach Sandstone Member forms the foreshore and cliff in the foreground, with the Murchisonae Zone fossiliferous beds at sea level. Above the low cliff, the steep slope is formed by the Udairn Shale Member and above this, the high cliff is formed by the Holm Sandstone and Rigg Sandstone members. (Photo: N. Morton.)

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Figure 6.43
Sowerby’s (1829) original illustration of ‘Ammonites murchisonae ’. Natural size.

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Figure 6.44
Schematic graphic log of the Bearreraig Sandstone Formation at Bearreraig Bay, showing lithostratigraphical and chronostratigraphical subdivisions. More detailed bed-by-bed descriptions and measured successions can be found in Morton and Hudson (1995).

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Figure 6.45
The Aalenian–Bajocian stage boundary section beside the pipeline at Bearreraig Bay. The boundary is taken at the base of the slightly harder bed (arrowed) which is Bed U10 of Figure 6.46. (Photo: M.G. Sumbler.)

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Figure 6.46
Details of the succession across the Aalenian–Bajocian boundary at the Auxiliary Stratotype Point at Bearreraig Bay (outcrop near bottom of pipeline cutting (NG 5170 5271). (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 28.) ([M] = macroconch; [m] = microconch.) Bed numbers follow Morton and Hudson (1995).

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Figure 6.47
Geological map of the northern part of Beinn na Leac, Rudha na Leac and Hallaig, Isle of Raasay (Quaternary sediments and minor intrusions omitted). (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 9.)

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Figure 6.48
Gualann an Leac (northern face of Beinn na Leac). The grassy slopes in the lower left are the Dun Caan Shale Member above which, left of centre, are the steeper slopes, with ledges sloping down to right, formed by the Beinn na Leac Sandstone Member. The upper part of this member forms the lower third of the lower cliff, while the upper part of the lower cliff and the high cliffs behind are composed of the Raasay Sandstone Member. (Photo: N. Morton.)

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Figure 6.49
Succession from the top of the Scalpa Sandstone Formation (Lower Jurassic, Upper Pliensbachian) to the lower part of the Bearreraig Sandstone Formation (uppermost Toarcian, Aalenian and Lower Bajocian) at Gualann na Leac. (After Morton and Hudson, 1995, fig. 14.)

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